Lexicon of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
[german]


 

Find counter arguments by entering NameVs… or …VsName.

The author or concept searched is found in the following 5 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Induction Mayr
 
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I 78
Induction/Francis Bacon/Mayr: large rehabilitation (and actually the first introduction) of induction. For two centuries decisive. Justus von LiebigVsBacon: 1863 first rejection of Bacon. "Induction alone cannot produce new theories".
Biology: for them, practically none of the universal laws of physics apply. This is why it was largely excluded from science philosophy.
---
I 80
MayrVsPopper: it is often very difficult, if not impossible, to falsify a useless theory convincingly. The categorical statement that in a single falsification the whole theory falls does not apply to evolutionary biology. ---
I 219
Definition Induction/Biology/Mayr: Influence of already existing tissues on the development of other tissues. By proteins. It is important for almost all organisms.

Ma
E. Mayr
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

Interpretation Bacon
 
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Feyerabend I 97
Natural interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: Bacon wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the shells of an onion. He thought the interpretations were simply added to the perception. ---
I 98
Natural interpretation/observation language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without them we would be completely disorientated. We also cannot separate their netting.


Fe I
P. Feyerabend
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Fe II
P. Feyerabend
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979
Interpretation Feyerabend
 
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I 94
Natural Interpretation/Feyerabend: mental operations that are so closely linked to the senses that separation is difficult. Natural interpretations are learned! Natural Interpretation/Intellectual History/Feyerabend: depends, either a-priori presuppositions (Kant) or advantages (Bacon).
97
Natural Interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: Bacon wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the peels of an onion. He believed the interpretations were simply added to perception.
I 98
Natural Interpretation/Observation Language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without it we would be completely disoriented. We cannot take apart its mesh.
I 105
Natural Interpretation/Feyerabend: the new natural interpretations form a new and abstract observation language. They are introduced and hidden so that the completed change is not noticed (method of anamnesis). They contain the notion of ​​the relativity of all motion and the law of inertia of circular motion.
I 123
Natural Interpretation/Earth Movement/Feyerabend: "natural" in a completely new and revolutionary sense: it does not require neither an external nor an internal drive to maintain it! The first kind of movement is necessary to explain the up and down of the stars,
The second kind is used when one wishes to regard the movement as something relative, as depending on the choice of a coordinate system.
I 367
Interpretation/Feyerabend: continuity of formal relations (logic) does not mean continuity of interpretations. E.g. Duhem: the notorious "derivation" of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws.

Fe I
P. Feyerabend
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Fe II
P. Feyerabend
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979

Positivism Wright
 
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I 152
Positivismus/Wright, G.H.: lässt sich auf verschiedene Weisen charakterisieren: a) verbunden mit einer phänomenalistischen oder sensualistischen Erkenntnistheorie und
b) moderner Positivismus: verbunden mit einer Verifikationstheorie der Bedeutung.
c) verbunden mit einer „szientistischen“ und „technologischen“ Auffassung von Erkenntnis und deren Verwendungen.
Mill: hat mehr von einem Positivisten im ersten Sinne an sich als Comte.
Comte: sein Positivismus ist vor allem Wissenschaftstheorie (Vgl. Comte, A., Cours de philosophie positive, Avertissement de l’Auteur, 1830). Comtes letztliches Ziel bestand darin, ein Verfechter des „positiven“ wissenschaftlichen Geistes in der Untersuchung gesellschaftlicher Phänomene zu sein. Damit gekoppelt war ein starker Glaube an die Nützlichkeit wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse für soziale Reformen. (1830, Lecon I, 8).
Wright, G.H.: es ist vielleicht nicht uninteressant, dass sich Comte als Verkünder einer technologischen Wissensauffassung mit Francis Bacon vergleichen lässt. Beide trugen zwar wesentlich zur Bildung eines gewissen „szientistischen Meinungsklimas“ bei, doch fast überhaupt nichts zum tatsächlichen wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt. (G.H. von WrightVsBacon, G. H. von WrightVsComte.)
I 21
Positivismus/VsPositivismus/Wright, G.H.: die anti-positivistische Methodologie des 19. Jahrhunderts lässt sich mit einer älteren aristotelischen Tradition in Verbindung bringen, einer Tradition, die drei Jahrhunderte früher durch einen neuen Geist in der Wissenschaftstheorie, nämlich vor allem durch Galilei verdrängt worden war.

Wri I
Cr. Wright
Wahrheit und Objektivität Frankfurt 2001

WriGH I
G. H. von Wright
Erklären und Verstehen Hamburg 2008

Positivism Comte
 
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Wright I 152
Positivismus/Comte/Wright, G. H.: Comtes Positivismus ist vor allem Wissenschaftstheorie (Vgl. Comte, A. Cours de philosophie positive, Avertissement de l’Auteur, 1830). Comtes letztliches Ziel bestand darin, ein Verfechter des „positiven“ wissenschaftlichen Geistes in der Untersuchung gesellschaftlicher Phänomene zu sein. Damit gekoppelt war ein starker Glaube an die Nützlichkeit wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse für soziale Reformen. (1830, Lecon I, 8). Wright, G.H.: es ist vielleicht nicht uninteressant, dass sich Comte als Verkünder einer technologischen Wissensauffassung mit Francis Bacon vergleichen lässt. Beide trugen zwar wesentlich zur Bildung eines gewissen „szientistischen Meinungsklimas“ bei, doch fast überhaupt nichts zum tatsächlichen wissenschaftlichen Fortschritt. (G.H. von WrightVsBacon, G. H. von WrightVsComte.)


Comte I
A. Comte
Cours de Philosophie Positive (Ed.1830) New York 2012


Wri I
Cr. Wright
Wahrheit und Objektivität Frankfurt 2001

WriGH I
G. H. von Wright
Erklären und Verstehen Hamburg 2008

The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Bacon, F. Black Vs Bacon, F.
 
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III 89
Science/Neutrality/Black: classic trend: "not interest-driven". III 90 Idyllic picture: the results are only shared with a small illustrious circle of insiders. That is outdated. Instead: Science/Bacon:> Rule over nature. Scientists: USA 1978: 1.223 million practicing, social scientists:. 190.000. BlackVsBacon: the military-industrial complex casts a shadow over its ideal to use science for the benefit of mankind.

Bla I
Max Black
Bedeutung und Intention
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979

Bla II
M. Black
Sprache München 1973

Bla III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983
Bacon, F. Feyerabend Vs Bacon, F.
 
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I 97
Natural Interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the layers of an onion. He believed that the interpretations were simply added to the perception.
I 98
Natural Interpretation/Observation Language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without it we would be completely disoriented. We cannot take its braid it apart.

Fe I
P. Feyerabend
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Fe II
P. Feyerabend
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979
Various Authors Hacking Vs Various Authors
 
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I 98
Argument of Cosmic Coincidence: a good theory explains phenomena as contiguous which have not previously been thought of as related. Conversely, we arrive at the same raw entities with very different thought processes.
I 227
Reichenbach: "Argument of the same cause" - also Salmon: E.g. Brownian movement, Avogadro number: you always come to the same number in different ways. HackingVs: petitio principii. Language/Bennett: developed, E.g. because one native wanted to warn another that a coconut was about to fall from a tree.
HackingVsBennett: racist! In general, conjectures about the origin of language have a tendency to be unimaginative and patronizing.
I 249
Bacon: "An experiment which is not preceded by theory is related to the natural sciences like the sound of a child’s rattle to music". HackingVsBacon: an experiment can be made out of mere curiosity and be equally fruitful!.
I 299
Theory/Observation/Hanson: Noticing and observing are skills and abilities. E.g. positron. HackingVsHanson: you cannot train an assistant to make accurate observations without teaching him big theory. (still practiced in England today).

Hack I
I. Hacking
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996

The author or concept searched is found in the following disputes of scientific camps.
Disputed term/author/ism Pro/Versus
Entry
Reference
Experiment Pro Hacking I 249
AristotleVsExperiments - instead: deduction from principles - Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) per experiment (> 17th century) - HackingVsBacon: e. also out of sheer curiosity.