Dictionary of Arguments


Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute
 
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The author or concept searched is found in the following 5 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Entry
Reference
Induction Mayr I 78
Induction/Francis Bacon/Mayr: large rehabilitation (and actually the first introduction) of induction. For two centuries decisive. Justus von LiebigVsBacon: 1863 first rejection of Bacon. "Induction alone cannot produce new theories".
Biology: for them, practically none of the universal laws of physics apply. This is why it was largely excluded from science philosophy.
---
I 80
MayrVsPopper: it is often very difficult, if not impossible, to falsify a useless theory convincingly. The categorical statement that in a single falsification the whole theory falls does not apply to evolutionary biology. ---
I 219
Definition Induction/Biology/Mayr: Influence of already existing tissues on the development of other tissues. By proteins. It is important for almost all organisms.

Mayr I
Ernst Mayr
This is Biology, Cambridge/MA 1997
German Edition:
Das ist Biologie Heidelberg 1998

Interpretation Bacon Feyerabend I 97
Natural interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: Bacon wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the shells of an onion. He thought the interpretations were simply added to the perception. ---
I 98
Natural interpretation/observation language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without them we would be completely disorientated. We also cannot separate their netting.


Feyerabend I
Paul Feyerabend
Against Method. Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, London/New York 1971
German Edition:
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Feyerabend II
P. Feyerabend
Science in a Free Society, London/New York 1982
German Edition:
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979
Interpretation Feyerabend I 94
Natural Interpretation/Feyerabend: mental operations that are so closely linked to the senses that separation is difficult. Natural interpretations are learned! Natural Interpretation/Intellectual History/Feyerabend: depends, either a-priori presuppositions (Kant) or advantages (Bacon).
97
Natural Interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: Bacon wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the peels of an onion. He believed the interpretations were simply added to perception.
I 98
Natural Interpretation/Observation Language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without it we would be completely disoriented. We cannot take apart its mesh.
I 105
Natural Interpretation/Feyerabend: the new natural interpretations form a new and abstract observation language. They are introduced and hidden so that the completed change is not noticed (method of anamnesis). They contain the notion of ​​the relativity of all motion and the law of inertia of circular motion.
I 123
Natural Interpretation/Earth Movement/Feyerabend: "natural" in a completely new and revolutionary sense: it does not require neither an external nor an internal drive to maintain it! The first kind of movement is necessary to explain the up and down of the stars,
The second kind is used when one wishes to regard the movement as something relative, as depending on the choice of a coordinate system.
I 367
Interpretation/Feyerabend: continuity of formal relations (logic) does not mean continuity of interpretations. E.g. Duhem: the notorious "derivation" of Newton's law of gravitation from Kepler's laws.

Feyerabend I
Paul Feyerabend
Against Method. Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, London/New York 1971
German Edition:
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Feyerabend II
P. Feyerabend
Science in a Free Society, London/New York 1982
German Edition:
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979

Positivism Wright I 152
Positivism/Wright, G. H.:can be characterized in different ways: a) associated with a phenomenalist or sensualist epistemology; and
b) modern positivism: associated with a verification theory of meaning.
c) associated with a "scientist" and "technological" conception of knowledge and its uses.
Mill: has more of a positivist in the first sense of the word than Comte.
Comte: his positivism is above all science theory (cf. Comte, A., Cours de philosophie positive, Avertissement de l' Auteur, 1830). Comte's ultimate goal was to be an advocate of the "positive" scientific spirit in the study of social phenomena. This was coupled with a strong belief in the usefulness of scientific knowledge for social reforms. (1830, lecon I, 8).
Wright, G. H.: it is perhaps not uninteresting that Comte, as a herald of a technological understanding of knowledge, can be compared to Francis Bacon. Both of them contributed significantly to the creation of a certain "scientistic climate of opinion", but almost nothing at all was contributed to the actual scientific progress. (G. H. von WrightVsBacon, G. H. von WrightVsComte.)
---
I 21
Positivism/VsPositivism/Wright, G. H.: the anti-positivist methodology of the nineteenth century can be associated with an older Aristotelian tradition, a tradition that had been replaced three centuries earlier by a new spirit in science theory, above all by Galileo.

WrightCr I
Crispin Wright
Truth and Objectivity, Cambridge 1992
German Edition:
Wahrheit und Objektivität Frankfurt 2001

WrightCr II
Crispin Wright
"Language-Mastery and Sorites Paradox"
In
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell Oxford 1976

WrightGH I
Georg Henrik von Wright
Explanation and Understanding, New York 1971
German Edition:
Erklären und Verstehen Hamburg 2008

Positivism Comte Wright I 152
Positivism/Comte/Wright, G. H.: Comte's positivism is above all science theory (Cf. Comte, A.: Cours de philosophie positive, Avertissement de l' Auteur, 1830). Comte's ultimate goal was to be an advocate of the "positive" scientific spirit in the study of social phenomena. Coupled with this was a strong belief in the usefulness of scientific knowledge for social reforms. (1830, lecon I, 8). Wright, G. H.: it is perhaps not uninteresting that Comte can be compared to Francis Bacon as a herald of a technological view of knowledge. Both contributed significantly to the creation of a certain "scientistic climate of opinion", but almost nothing at all was contributed to the actual scientific progress. (G. H. von WrightVsBacon, G. H. von WrightVsComte.)

Comte I
A. Comte
Cours de Philosophie Positive (Ed.1830) New York 2012


WrightCr I
Crispin Wright
Truth and Objectivity, Cambridge 1992
German Edition:
Wahrheit und Objektivität Frankfurt 2001

WrightCr II
Crispin Wright
"Language-Mastery and Sorites Paradox"
In
Truth and Meaning, G. Evans/J. McDowell Oxford 1976

WrightGH I
Georg Henrik von Wright
Explanation and Understanding, New York 1971
German Edition:
Erklären und Verstehen Hamburg 2008

The author or concept searched is found in the following 3 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Entry
Reference
Bacon, F. Black Vs Bacon, F. III 89
Science/Neutrality/Black: classic trend: "not interest-driven". III 90 Idyllic picture: the results are only shared with a small illustrious circle of insiders. That is outdated. Instead: Science/Bacon:> Rule over nature. Scientists: USA 1978: 1.223 million practicing, social scientists:. 190.000. BlackVsBacon: the military-industrial complex casts a shadow over its ideal to use science for the benefit of mankind.

Black I
Max Black
"Meaning and Intention: An Examination of Grice’s Views", New Literary History 4, (1972-1973), pp. 257-279
In
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg) Frankfurt/M 1979

Black II
M. Black
The Labyrinth of Language, New York/London 1978
German Edition:
Sprache. Eine Einführung in die Linguistik München 1973

Black III
M. Black
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983

Black IV
Max Black
"The Semantic Definition of Truth", Analysis 8 (1948) pp. 49-63
In
Truth and Meaning, Paul Horwich Aldershot 1994
Bacon, F. Feyerabend Vs Bacon, F. I 97
Natural Interpretation/Bacon/Feyerabend: wanted to remove natural interpretations (which were prejudices for him) like the layers of an onion. He believed that the interpretations were simply added to the perception.
I 98
Natural Interpretation/Observation Language/FeyerabendVsBacon: without it we would be completely disoriented. We cannot take its braid it apart.

Feyerabend I
Paul Feyerabend
Against Method. Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge, London/New York 1971
German Edition:
Wider den Methodenzwang Frankfurt 1997

Feyerabend II
P. Feyerabend
Science in a Free Society, London/New York 1982
German Edition:
Erkenntnis für freie Menschen Frankfurt 1979
Various Authors Hacking Vs Various Authors I 98
Argument of Cosmic Coincidence: a good theory explains phenomena as contiguous which have not previously been thought of as related. Conversely, we arrive at the same raw entities with very different thought processes.
I 227
Reichenbach: "Argument of the same cause" - also Salmon: E.g. Brownian movement, Avogadro number: you always come to the same number in different ways. HackingVs: petitio principii. Language/Bennett: developed, E.g. because one native wanted to warn another that a coconut was about to fall from a tree.
HackingVsBennett: racist! In general, conjectures about the origin of language have a tendency to be unimaginative and patronizing.
I 249
Bacon: "An experiment which is not preceded by theory is related to the natural sciences like the sound of a child’s rattle to music". HackingVsBacon: an experiment can be made out of mere curiosity and be equally fruitful!.
I 299
Theory/Observation/Hanson: Noticing and observing are skills and abilities. E.g. positron. HackingVsHanson: you cannot train an assistant to make accurate observations without teaching him big theory. (still practiced in England today).

Hacking I
I. Hacking
Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge/New York/Oakleigh 1983
German Edition:
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996

The author or concept searched is found in the following disputes of scientific camps.
Disputed term/author/ism Pro/Versus
Entry
Reference
Experiment Pro Hacking I 249
AristotleVsExperiments - instead: deduction from principles - Francis Bacon (1561 - 1626) per experiment (> 17th century) - HackingVsBacon: e. also out of sheer curiosity.

Hacking I
I. Hacking
Representing and Intervening. Introductory Topics in the Philosophy of Natural Science, Cambridge/New York/Oakleigh 1983
German Edition:
Einführung in die Philosophie der Naturwissenschaften Stuttgart 1996