Dictionary of Arguments

Philosophical and Scientific Issues in Dispute

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The author or concept searched is found in the following 2 entries.
Disputed term/author/ism Author
Actions Luhmann AU Cas 4
Action/LuhmannVsAction Theory: the concept of action is not suitable, because a participant is presupposed. - But they also exist, however, without an audience. - In principle, an action can be presented as a solitary, socially non-resonant cause.
AU Cass 11
Action Theory: insisting on rationality - comes from Max Weber - action/Weber: first means and purpose must be distinguished - LuhmannVsWeber: Problem, what should be excluded - is a certain action rather behavior? - Weber: more description of ideal types than of concrete reality. Solution/today: Rational Choice Theory. outside delimitation: Problem: what counts as consequences - internal delimitation: - Solution: the actor, must ascribe the action to himself . - Problem: what counts as a motive?
LuhmannVsAction Theory: it does not clarify the contours of the concept of action. - It does not answer the question of how systems can be formed from actions, when the action is consolidated psychologically and biologically in the individual.

N. Luhmann
Introduction to Systems Theory, Lectures Universität Bielefeld 1991/1992
German Edition:
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

Understanding Luhmann AU Cas 12
Understanding/LuhmannVsHabermas: Understanding is already included in the communication. - Otherwise, you would need the recipient as a disciplinary authority. - LuhmannVsSpeech Act Theory: if understanding is part of the communication, you do not need to introduce different types of speech acts (e.g. strategic, communication-oriented, etc.). ---
AU Cas 13
Understanding/action/Communication/Luhmann: LuhmannVsAction Theory: we must always begin with understanding. - The communication generates in the first place in its component "understanding" the division of information and communication that makes it understanding. - Without understanding we only have behavior. - Understanding includes itself. - It understands that it will be understood - it understands that it is about the condition of participation in the communication, not just about a piece of world. - That sounds psychologically, but it is about the communication itself.

N. Luhmann
Introduction to Systems Theory, Lectures Universität Bielefeld 1991/1992
German Edition:
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

The author or concept searched is found in the following 4 controversies.
Disputed term/author/ism Author Vs Author
Action Theory Luhmann Vs Action Theory Reese-Schäfer II 103
LuhmannVsAction Theory/Reese-Schäfer: quite blurred concept of individuals that can only be determined by pointing to people. Thus, habits of speech are presented as factual knowledge: because language requires us to use subjects. >Language/Luhmann.

N. Luhmann
Introduction to Systems Theory, Lectures Universität Bielefeld 1991/1992
German Edition:
Einführung in die Systemtheorie Heidelberg 1992

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

Reese-Schäfer II
Walter Reese-Schäfer
Luhmann zur Einführung Hamburg 2001
Lewis, D. Hausman Vs Lewis, D. Schurz I 240
Umstände/Kausalität/Schurz: Umstände müssen analytisch unabhängig sein. Singuläre Kausalrelation/individual causation/Schurz: hier brauchen wir nicht nur die Ursache, sondern auch die Wirkung (im Gegensatz zum allgemeinen Fall).
probabilistische Kausalität: hier ist (im Gegensatz zur strikten) das Eintreten der Wirkung wesentlich.
EellsVsHausman: (VsHausman’s "Principle G"): in indeterministischen Situationen folgt daraus, dass F in Umständen U G generell verursacht und dass Ereignis Fa unter Umständen Ua eingetreten ist, nicht zwingend, dass auch die Wirkung Ga eingetreten ist, sondern nur mit erhöhter Wahrscheindlichkeit.
Individual Causation/Counterfactual Conditional/co.co./Lewis/Schurz: (Lewis 1973a): durch Rekurs auf similarity metrics zwischen möglichen Welten: ein Ereignis Fa verursachte ein anderes Ga, wenn zutrifft: wäre Fa nicht eingetreten, so wäre auch Ga nicht eingetreten.
HausmanVsLewis: Problem unter anderem: Deutung der similarity metrics.
I 244
interventionistischer Ansatz/probabilistisch/Kausalität/Handlungstheorie/Schurz: der interventionistische Ansatz geht von der Handlungstheorie aus (von Wright, 1974, 73, Menzies, Price 1993): danach ist A die Ursache von B, wenn durch Realisierung von A mit Hilfe einer Handlung H die Wirkung B herbeigeführt werden kann. Das erscheint zirkulär, weil die Herbeiführung durch eine Handlung unerklärt ist. HausmanVsAction theory: (1989): sie sollte durch eine abstrakte kausale intervention theory ersetzt werden. (+)

D. M. Hausman
The Philosophy of Economics: An Anthology Cambridge 2008

Schu I
G. Schurz
Einführung in die Wissenschaftstheorie Darmstadt 2006
System Theory Action Theory Vs System Theory Luhmann AU Kass 11
Action TheoryVsSystem Theory/Luhmann: in this controversy, the problem is simply put wrongly: because system theory was actually always action theory. Parsons: "Action is system". LuhmannVsAction Theory: does not answer our question of the contours of the concept of action, nor the question of how systems can be formed from action if actions are psychologically and biologically based in the individual.
Various Authors Luhmann Vs Various Authors Habermas I 436
VsParsons: simply reproduces the classical model through systems. (Social system = action system). Luhmann instead: human as part of the environment of society. This changes the premises of all questions. Methodical anti-humanism.
Habermas I 440
LuhmannVsHumanism: "Cardinal Error". A fusion of social and material dimensions.
Reese-Schäfer II 28
LuhmannVsDualism: of observer and object. Universality/Vs: the total view, the universality had to be given up and was replaced by "critique", with which the subject's point of view on universality is rounded up again". Foundation/Luhmann: there is no last stop. (Like Quine, Sellars, Rorty).
Reese-Schäfer II 42
VsMarx: rejects the speech of "social contradictions": it is simply about a conflict of interests. Competition is not a contradiction either: two people can certainly aspire to the same good. Contradiction/Luhmann: arises only from the self-reference of sense. Not as in Marx.
Contradictions/Legal System: does not serve for the avoidance, but for the regulation of conflicts.
Reese-Schäfer II 78
Freedom of Value: (Max Weber): the renunciation of valuations is, so to speak, the blind spot of a second level observation.
Reese-Schäfer II 89
Vs Right Politics: here there is no theory at all that would be able to read other theories. There is only apercus or certain literary guiding ideas. Reese-Schäfer II 90/91
VsGehlen: we do not have to subordinate ourselves to the institutions.
Reese-Schäfer II 102
VsAction Theory: a very vague concept of individuals that can only be defined by pointing at people. Thus language habits are presented as language knowledge: because language requires us to employ subjects. LL. Language.
Reese-Schäfer II 103
Reason/VsAdorno: one should not resign oneself (dialectic of the Enlightenment) but ask whether it does not get better without reason!
Reese-Schäfer II 112
Overstimulation/LuhmannVsTradition: cannot take place at all. For already the neurophysiological apparatus drastically shields the consciousness. The operative medium sense does the rest.
Reese-Schäfer II 138
Human/Gehlen: tried to determine the human from its difference to the animal. (LuhmannVs).
AU Cass. 3
VsParsons: Terminology limited by structural functionalism: one could not ask about the function of structures, or examine terms such as inventory or inventory prerequisite, variable or the whole methodological area. Limitation by the fact that a certain object was assumed as given. There were no criteria for the existence of the object - instead the theory must be able to contain all deviance and dysfunction. (not possible with Parsons) - Question: in which time period and which bandwidths is a system identifiable? (e.g. Revolution: is society still the same society afterwards?) Inventory criteria Biology: Definition by death. The living reproduces itself by its own means. Self-reference (important in modern system theory) is not possible within the framework of the Parsons' model. Therefore we need interdisciplinary solutions.

VsAction Theory: the concept of action is not suitable because an actor is assumed! But it also exists without an observer! In principle, an action can be presented as a solitary thing without social resonance! - Paradox/Luhmann: the procedure of the dissolution of the paradox is logically objectionable, but is constantly applied by the logicians themselves: they use a change of levels. The only question that must not be asked is: what is the unity of the difference of planes?
(AU Cass. 4)
VsEquilibrium Theories: questionable today; 1. from the point of view of natural science: it is precisely the imbalances which are stable, equilibrium is rather metaphor.
(AU Cass. 6)
Tradition: "Transmission of patterns from generation to generation". Stored value patterns that are offered again and again and adopted by the offspring. However, these patterns are still the same. VsTradition: Question: Where does identity come from in the first place? How could one talk about selfhood without an external observer? That will not be much different either with the assumptions of a reciprocal relationship with learning. Luhmann: instead: (Autopoiesis): Socialization is always self-socialization.
AU Cass 6
Information/Luhmann: the term must now be adapted to it! In the 70s one spoke of "genetic information", treated structures as informative, the genetic code contained information.
Luhmann: this is wrong, because genes only contain structures and no events!
The semantic side of the term remained unexplained for a long time, i.e. the question of what information can choose from.

Reese-Schäfer II 76
LuhmannVsMarx/Reese-Schäfer: rejects the talk of "social contradictions": it is simply about a conflict of interests. Competition is not a contradiction either: two people can certainly strive for the same good.
AU Cass 11
Emergence/Reductionism/System Theory/Luhmann: this does not even pose the actual question: what actually distinguishes an emergent system? What is the characteristic for the distinction from the basal state? What is the criterion that enables emergence? Will Martens: (Issue 4, Kölner Zeitschrift f. Sozialforschung): Autopoiesis of social systems.
It deals with the question following the concept of autopoiesis and communication.
Communication/Luhmann: Tripartite structure:
Communication, Understanding (not action sequences). (Comes from linguistics, but also antiquity!).
Martens: this tripartite division is the psychological foundation of communication. Communication must first be negotiated in the individual head, I must see what I assume to be unknown and what I want to choose, and my body must also be in good shape.
Marten's thesis: sociality only comes about in the synthesis of these three components.
Social things arise when information, communication and understanding are created as a unit with repercussions on the participating mental systems, which must behave accordingly.
The unity is only the synthesis itself, while the elements still have to be described psychologically or biologically etc. Without this foundation it does not work.
LuhmannVsMartens: I hope you fall for it! At first that sounds very plausible. But now comes the question:
What is communicated in the text by Martens? Certainly not the blood circulation! There is also no blood in the text! The editors would already fight this off, there is also no state of consciousness in the text! So I cannot imagine what the author was thinking! I can well imagine that he was supplied with blood and sat in front of the computer. And that he wanted to take part in the discussion.
Luhmann: these are all constructions which are suggested in communication, but which are not actually present in communication. (>Interpenetration).
Communication/LuhmannVsMartens: Question: what is actually claimed in the text, and does it not actually refute it itself?
Paradox: the text that tells of blood and thoughts claims to bring blood and thoughts, but it only brings letters and what a skilled reader can make of the text. That is communication. That is all I can actually see!
Communication/Luhmann: if you think realistically and operatively, you cannot see more in the text. We have to put the words together from the letters ourselves.
When psychic systems respond to communication, they change their internal states accordingly.
Communication/Luhmann: if one has received this message (from Martens), one can say: everything is actually correct, one could describe a communication completely on the basis of physical or psychological facts. Nothing would be missing, with the exception of autopoiesis itself.
Question: we have to explain how communication maintains itself without incorporating psychological and physical operations!
Luhmann: this reproduction of communication through communication goes only through total exclusion from physical, psychological, etc. operations.

Lu I
N. Luhmann
Die Kunst der Gesellschaft Frankfurt 1997

Ha I
J. Habermas
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981

Jürgen Habermas
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981

Reese-Schäfer II
Walter Reese-Schäfer
Luhmann zur Einführung Hamburg 2001