﻿ Nelson Goodman on Analog/Digital - Dictionary of Arguments

# Dictionary of Arguments

Author Item Summary Meta data
III 163ff
Many topology diagrams, for example, only need to have the correct number of points or joints connected by lines according to the correct scheme. Here, the points and lines act as characters in a notational language. These diagrams, as with electrical circuits, are purely digital.
It does not depend on a vague idea of the analog as something similar, but solely on technical requirements.
III 165
Models of this type are in reality diagrams. Or: diagrams are flat and static models. A molecular model of sticks and table tennis balls is digital. A working model of a windmill can be analog.
IV 168
A schema can be called digital in which two characters are effectively differentiated.
Analog: Schemata in which a path consisting of pairs of non-differentiated characters exists between two characters in the schema. (Warning of misleading notions in connection with the expression).
IV 169
"Digital" and "analog" do not apply to isolated symbols but only to schemes. Since schemata are not images and pictures, the question of how the pictorial and the analog are related can cause us some trouble.
For example, a unicorn or Lincoln picture is a card with a pattern of white and black squares.
IV 170
We are now assuming a Pack A, a stack of cards, some of which are pictures, some are inscriptions of letters, words, numbers, etc., and some cards are not supposed to belong to a known category. Since the cards are effectively differentiated, the schema is digital.
E.g. Now we add A by adding many more cards of the same size, one for each pattern, so that not only all the patterns composed of dots, but also all shades of any kind are included. In this extended Pack A' each card is indistinguishable from many others. The scheme is analog and even completely tight. But although A' is analog, it includes A and many other digital schemes!
Such digital sub-schemata can be thought to have arisen through elimination from A'.
However, a digital schema does not need to consist of characters composed of dots, but can consist of several nuanced images.
IV 171
Images that are not composed of dots belong to as many digital schemes as images composed of dots.
An analog scheme generally contains many digital schemata and a digital scheme is included in many analog schemes.
But obviously no digital schema includes an analog one.
IV 174
A symbol only works as an image if it is considered a character in the complete pictorial scheme.
A complete schema is pictorial only if it is analog. Verbal, if it is digital.
In other words, not every analog, complete schema is pictorial and not every digital complete schema is verbal.

_____________
Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

G IV
N. Goodman
Catherine Z. Elgin
Reconceptions in Philosophy and Other Arts and Sciences, Indianapolis 1988
German Edition:
Revisionen Frankfurt 1989

Goodman I
N. Goodman
Ways of Worldmaking, Indianapolis/Cambridge 1978
German Edition:
Weisen der Welterzeugung Frankfurt 1984

Goodman II
N. Goodman
Fact, Fiction and Forecast, New York 1982
German Edition:
Tatsache Fiktion Voraussage Frankfurt 1988

Goodman III
N. Goodman
Languages of Art. An Approach to a Theory of Symbols, Indianapolis 1976
German Edition:
Sprachen der Kunst Frankfurt 1997

> Counter arguments against Goodman

Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-12-16