Umberto Eco on Code - Dictionary of Arguments
Code/Miller/Eco: according to Miller (G. Miller, Language and Communication, NY, 1951), we define code as any system of symbols intended by prior agreement to represent the information and transmit it between source and destination.
a) a system of significant units and their combinations,
b) a system of semantic systems and rules of semantic combination of the different units (differentiated by their semantic components and compatible or incompatible)
c) a system of their possible couplings and the rules of transformation from one to the other and
d) a repertoire of rules of fact which provide for different communication circumstances corresponding to different interpretations.
Footnote: one could also say that the code involves: a) the morphological systems, b) the grammatical rules, c) the semantic systems, d) the rules of coupling and transition between morphological and semantic systems and e) the rules of semantic projection.
Eco: the description of codes as currently functioning can almost always only be carried out on the occasion of examining the communication circumstances of a particular message.
A semiotic judgment says what the code says. A factual judgment says what the code does not provide and enriches the code._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Opera aperta, Milano 1962, 1967
Das offene Kunstwerk Frankfurt/M. 1977
La struttura assente, Milano 1968
Einführung in die Semiotik München 1972