|Causality: causality is the relation between two (separate) entities, whereby a state change of the one entity causes the state of the other entity to change. Nowadays it is assumed that an energy transfer is crucial for talking about a causal link.|
D. Hume was the first to consistently deny the observability of cause and effect. (David Hume Eine Untersuchung über den menschlichen Verstand, Hamburg, 1993, p. 95).
_____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.
Ulrich Beck on Causality - Dictionary of Arguments
Causality/Risks/Society/Beck: in different countries, completely different standards apply for the validity of causal evidence. In Japan, for example, judges have decided to stop interpreting the impossibility of providing rigid scientific evidence of causal linkages against those affected in the face of globally interrelated modernisation risks.
They already recognise a causal relationship when statistical correlations between pollutant content and certain diseases are established ((s) mid-1980s). _____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. New Delhi 1992
Risikogesellschaft Frankfurt/M. 2015