|Habermas IV 129
Autonomy/Person/Durkheim/Habermas: The gift of free decision is sufficient to justify the personality of the individual. (1)
However, this autonomy is not limited to the ability to make arbitrary decisions. It does not consist in the freedom to "choose between two alternatives", but rather in a "reflected self-relationship".
Habermas IV 130
Progressive autonomy creates a new form of solidarity that is no longer secured by a prior consensus of values, but must be achieved cooperatively through individual efforts. Social integration through belief is replaced by cooperation.
In the second edition, Durkheim revises his original view that this solidarity was an effect of the division of labour in society. Instead, he feels compelled to postulate a professional group morality.
Habermas IV 131
HabermasVsDurkheim: by postulating something superior as a binding force, he does not escape
the pitfalls of historical-philosophical thinking. On the one hand he adopts the descriptive attitude of a social scientist, on the other hand he adopts the concept of universalist morality (...) in a normative attitude and succinctly declares it his duty "to form a new morality for us". (2)
HabermasVsDurkheim: he is not aware of the methodological conditions that the descriptive recording of a development process, understood as a rationalization process, must satisfy.
1. E. Durkheim, De la division du travail social, German: Über die Teilung der sozialen Arbeit, Frankfurt, 1977, S. 444
2. Ebenda S. 450._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981