|Rules, philosophy: rules are restrictions of a domain of possibilities for subjects, communities or functionaries, or generally for acting individuals or groups. Rules may be implicit or explicit, and may be implemented by ordinance or by jointly developing equally authorized participants, e.g. in a discourse. In another sense, rules can be understood as actual regularities that can be discovered by observation. These rules can be discovered not only in action, but also in the nature of objects such as linguistic structures. See also norms, values, rule following, private language, language rules, discourse, ethics, morality, cognitivism, intuitionism, society, practice._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Habermas IV 76
Rules/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim distinguishes technical from moral rules. He compares both types from the point of view of what happens if these rules are violated. (1) While a violation of a valid technical rule results in the failure of an intervention, a violation of a moral rule leads to sanctions which cannot always be understood as failure. There is a conventional connection between the rule of action and the sequence of action. This is not empirical as in the case of technical rules. Durkheim calls the connection between actions and consequences a synthetic bond. (2)
Habermas IV 77
Authority/Durkheim/Habermas: Durkheim aims at the moral authority of rules, not at the material authority of physical supremacy. (3) The need to explain the validity of moral rules is precisely the fact that they have a binding force that only justifies sanctions - and does not in turn presuppose sanctions. Moral rules have a special characteristic: the obligatory character, which simply forbids certain actions. (4)
Rules/"Moral Facts"/Durkheim/Habermas: two characteristics: a) a character of the impersonal, b) an emotional ambivalence that triggers moral authority in the actor.
1. E. Durkheim, Sociologie et philosophie, Paris 1951, German Frankfurt 1967, p. 93.
2. Ibid p. 93
3. Ibid p. 129
4. Ibid p. 94_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
The Rules of Sociological Method - French: Les Règles de la Méthode Sociologique, Paris 1895
Die Regeln der soziologischen Methode Frankfurt/M. 1984
Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne Frankfurt 1988
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. I Frankfurt/M. 1981
Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns Bd. II Frankfurt/M. 1981