|Artificial intelligence: is the ability to recognize artificial systems, patterns and redundancies, to complete incomplete sequences, to re-formulate and solve problems, and to estimate probabilities. This is not an automation of human behavior, since such an automation could be a mechanical imitation. Rather, artificial systems are only used by humans to make decisions, when these systems have already made autonomous decisions._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Norbert Wiener on Artificial Intelligence - Dictionary of Arguments
Brockman I 44
Artificial intelligence/Wiener/Dennett: Wiener foresaw the problems that Turing and the other optimists have largely overlooked. The real danger, he said, is
“that such machines, though helpless by themselves, may be used by a human being or a block of human beings to increase their control over the rest of the race or that political leaders may attempt to control their populations by means not of machines themselves but through political techniques as narrow and indifferent to human possibility as if they had, in fact, been conceived mechanically.”(1)
Dennett: The power, he recognized, lay primarily in the algorithms, not in the hardware they run on, although the hardware of today makes practically possible algorithms that would have seemed preposterously cumbersome in Wiener’s day.
1. The Human Use of Human Beings (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1954), 181.
Dennett, D. “What can we do?”, in: Brockman, John (ed.) 2019. Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI. New York: Penguin Press._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Cybernetics, Second Edition: or the Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine Cambridge, MA 1965
The Human Use of Human Beings (Cybernetics and Society), Boston 1952
Mensch und Menschmaschine Frankfurt/M. 1952
Possible Minds: Twenty-Five Ways of Looking at AI New York 2019