Algorithms/Deacon: an algorithm that manipulates tokens does not fulfill the necessary symbolic reference, they are mere typographical characters that are processed. Therefore, the example of the Chinese Room does not work either: there is no connection to the real world. Simple signs and icons need the reference to the objects they represent, symbols also need the whole symbol system within which they are organized. Symbolic reference is not an intrinsic property in itself._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
T. W. Deacon
The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of language and the Brain New York 1998
Terrence W. Deacon
Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter New York 2013