Altruism/Deacon: Reciprocal altruism is also found in species other than humans, although not widespread. The conditions for a constant relationship are not easy to fulfil.
1. animals must recognize other individuals and remember their past behaviour.
2. they must be able to detect "fraudsters" who do not engage in reciprocal altruistic behavior.
3. they must be able to control these fraudsters by not being altruistic towards them either.
4. the benefits of fraud must be significantly outweighed by the costs it causes. Similarly, the cost of finding out whether someone is cheating must not be too high.
A social organization that keeps the costs of reciprocal altruism low is family education._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
T. W. Deacon
The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of language and the Brain New York 1998
Terrence W. Deacon
Incomplete Nature: How Mind Emerged from Matter New York 2013