|Subject, philosophy: the subject is, in the most general sense, the originator of actions and creativity as well as bearer of ideas, beliefs, perceptions, feelings and moods. In the tradition of German idealism the subject is opposed to the object. More recently, there has been a shift in the focus of the discussion to questions of access to internal states. See also I, self, subjectivity, object, idealism, actions, action theory._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
John Lyons on Subjects - Dictionary of Arguments
Subject/deep structure/Lyons: e.g. eating apples cost more than cooking apples. (Eating apples [= apples for eating] cost more than cooking apples [=apples for cooking]). Here one cannot explain the interpretation by saying that apples is in a "subject relationship" in the deep structure. That would be a personification.
Problem: otherwise one would have to assume the following as possible: e.g. Apples eat with appetite (Eating apples with appetite).
Subject/object/grammar/transformational grammar/Lons: e.g. John eats the apples, John is eating: then The eating of the apples has an object meaning.
Problem: whether "s" also has a subject meaning depends on whether a sentence like The apples are eating can be generated. ((s) Grammatical, not semantic!).
Solution: whether it works then depends on whether the noun apple and the verb eat can be subclassified in the lexicon (by grammatical features) in such a way that the grammatical rules allow the assignment of a feature (e.g. inanimate) to a noun as subject of the verb class to which eat belongs to or does not belong to._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995