|Sentences: sentences are linguistic forms for expressing existent or non-existent issues of conditions, wishes, questions or commands. Statements can be true or false, unlike other forms of sentences like questions or single words. See also subsentential, truth, statements._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Utterance/Linguistics/Lyons: unequal sentence: the actual utterances cannot be completely described by a previous description of the possible sentences of a language.
Sentence/expression: the distinction between sentence and utterance is fundamental to modern linguistics. But we can first develop some basic concepts without them.
In the next three chapters, "sentence" and "utterance" will still be used synonymously. Later:
Sentence: Unit of langue
Utterance: Manifestation of the parole.
Def derived sentence/Lyons: e.g. sentences with index words: Example "He will be here soon". There are distributional restrictions here ((s) because there must be an anaphoric chain). (>Distribution, >Pronouns).
Incomplete sentence/Lyons: today: it is pointed out that incomplete statements are usually completely understandable and should therefore not be called "incomplete".
Completeness/Linguistics/Lyons: one must distinguish between contextual and grammatical completeness.
Incomplete in context: Example "With Peters, if he arrives on time": before: "Which car do we use?".
Grammatically incomplete: Example "Got the tickets?": Here it doesn't matter what tickets these are.
Sentence/Lyons: distributional relationships often overlap the boundaries of utterance segments, which are normally regarded as separate sentences. But this is not a contradiction if we assume two meanings of "sentence":
a) Sentence as a grammatical unit: is an abstract whole. In this sense, statements never consist of sentences.
b) utterance segments as a sentence: e.g. "How are you? It's a fine day. Are you going to play tennis this afternoon?" (See sentences/Bloomfield).
Sentence/Lyons: Thesis: We should limit the term sentence to the more abstract sense, then sentences are units of langue, and utterances are units of parole. (See parole/Saussure)
Sentence/Phonology/Lyons: a sentence can be explained phonologically by speech melody (intonation) and pause in speech, respectively these are its phonological criteria._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995