Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Sentences: sentences are linguistic forms for expressing existent or non-existent issues of conditions, wishes, questions or commands. Statements can be true or false, unlike other forms of sentences like questions or single words. See also subsentential, truth, statements.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 53
Utterance/Linguistics/Lyons: unequal sentence: the actual utterances cannot be completely described by a previous description of the possible sentences of a language.
Sentence/expression: the distinction between sentence and utterance is fundamental to modern linguistics. But we can first develop some basic concepts without them.
I 54
In the next three chapters, "sentence" and "utterance" will still be used synonymously. Later:
Sentence: Unit of langue
Utterance: Manifestation of the parole.
I 176
Def derived sentence/Lyons: e.g. sentences with index words: Example "He will be here soon". There are distributional restrictions here ((s) because there must be an anaphoric chain). (>Distribution, >Pronouns).
I 177
Incomplete sentence/Lyons: today: it is pointed out that incomplete statements are usually completely understandable and should therefore not be called "incomplete".
I 178
Completeness/Linguistics/Lyons: one must distinguish between contextual and grammatical completeness.
Incomplete in context: Example "With Peters, if he arrives on time": before: "Which car do we use?".
Grammatically incomplete: Example "Got the tickets?": Here it doesn't matter what tickets these are.
I 179
Sentence/Lyons: distributional relationships often overlap the boundaries of utterance segments, which are normally regarded as separate sentences. But this is not a contradiction if we assume two meanings of "sentence":
a) Sentence as a grammatical unit: is an abstract whole. In this sense, statements never consist of sentences.
b) utterance segments as a sentence: e.g. "How are you? It's a fine day. Are you going to play tennis this afternoon?" (See sentences/Bloomfield).
Sentence/Lyons: Thesis: We should limit the term sentence to the more abstract sense, then sentences are units of langue, and utterances are units of parole. (See parole/Saussure)
I 183
Sentence/Phonology/Lyons: a sentence can be explained phonologically by speech melody (intonation) and pause in speech, respectively these are its phonological criteria.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Ly I
J. Lyons
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995

John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-07-20