Ambiguity/transformational/grammar/Lyons: there are many more types here, in addition to the various parentheses.
Example amor dei: the love of God: a) from God, b) to God. Subjective or objective genitive.
Chomsky: famous example:
Flying planes can be dangerous
a) Planes can be dangerous
b) Flying can be dangerous
Tradition: would explain this by the difference between participle and gerund:
Definition Participle/Lyons: is a word derived from a verb and used as an adjective.
Definition Gerund/Lyons: is a word derived from a verb and used as a noun.
Solution: a) Flying planes are dangerous.
b) Flying planes is dangerous.
Lexeme/Lyons: a certain word (here in the abstract sense) can be verbal in a sentence and nominal in a transformationally related sentence. (Participle/Gerund).
Solution/Transformation/Lyons: then we can say that for example the syntagma Flying planes is derived by a rule that transforms the structure underlying the sentence Flying planes can be dangerous.
Ambiguity/grammatical/Lyons: new: here we are dealing with ambiguity, which is no longer only semantic but also grammatical.
Chomsky: Example the shooting of the hunters.
Subject/object/Chomsky/Lyons: the difference becomes clear here by the fact that "of" i, subject-case possessive pronoun, is a preposition in the object-case.
Solution: by convention: we introduce indices: NP1, NP2 ((s) Instead of subject/object).
ing-form: is often grammatically ambiguous, i.e. a syntagma of the form the V + ing of NP, but not necessarily also semantically ambiguous.
Solution: the grammar should provide the following forms:
(5) NP1 V tr NP2
(6) NP1 V intr
and further, that
a) the V of the V + ing of NP is identical with an element of V tr in (5) and an element of V intr in (6), and
b) the NP of the V + ing of NP can occur both as NP2 in (5) and as NP1 in (6)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995