Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Analysis: examining a subject by breaking it down into its components.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 130
Definition Prosodic Analysis/Linguistics/Lyons: this is a third phonological theory (Firth) particularly suitable for Turkish.
Thesis: The phoneme plays no role at all, neither as the smallest unit of description, nor as a distinctive characteristic.
I 131
Vocal harmony/Turkish: the eight vowels of Turkish can be described by three articulatory oppositions: high/low - front/back - rounded/not rounded. The vocal harmony is effective in Turkish throughout the entire word. ((s) Example ev-ler/dat-lar).
I 134
Prosodic Analysis/Lyons: is multidimensional: (not one-dimensional sequence of phonemes) but several layers of prosodia are superimposed and effective over areas of different lengths. (syllables, words, even phrases and sentences).
Phonemics/Lyons: (classical orthodox American) thesis: phonological analysis should precede and be independent of grammatical analysis.
VsPhonemics: Today: almost all Vs: that is unnecessarily rigid.
I 135
The occurrence of words depends on their grammatical function (as nouns, verbs, etc.) and their meaning.
Phonology/Function/Lyons: often very different phonological contrasts are important for different grammatical classes.
I 135
Definition Grammatical function/Lyons: a word functions as noun, verb, adjective, etc.
I 161
Analysis/Grammar/Lyons: a body of utterances can only be described if it is considered a sample of the sentences generated by the grammar. Therefore, there is no contradiction between generative and descriptive grammar.
Synthesis/Grammar/Lyons: here a lexicon will be useful, in which you can easily find the corresponding units for a word class symbol, e.g. N {man, boy, chimpanzee....}
Analysis/Lexicon: here the lexicon should be arranged completely differently; namely alphabetically!
I 162
For example, there are many English words ending in -ness. Therefore, one could establish a formula for the derivation: Ax + ness = Ny. "Every word consisting of an element of the word class Ax and -ness is an element of the word class Ny". Then all words that can be derived in this way can be deleted from the lexicon.
Synthesis: Problem: here we have to decide which adjectives belong to the Ax class:
I 163
Example "trueness" and "strongness" in addition to "truth" and "strength"?.
Grammar/Analysis/Synthesis/Lyons: that grammar is neutral between analysis and synthesis does not mean that analysis is simply the inversion of synthesis. There is not simply a computer program that proceeds in one case "from top to bottom" (from grammar to lexicon) and in the other case "from bottom to top". Both in production and in recognition (for listeners and speakers)
I 164
feedback is important.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

John Lyons
Semantics Cambridge, MA 1977

Lyons I
John Lyons
Introduction to Theoretical Lingustics, Cambridge/MA 1968
German Edition:
Einführung in die moderne Linguistik München 1995

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-07-21
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