Word classes/Gärdenfors: in all languages, words can be grouped into classes with different semantic and syntactic functions. In English usually in eight classes: nouns, pronouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
Definition word class/linguistics: class of words with the same syntactic properties, in particular, inflection and localization in sentences. (Croft, 2001). (1)
Communication: that verbs, nouns, and adjectives can be identified in almost all languages, suggests that general patterns of human cognition make a division into these classes useful. (Dixon, 2004). (2)
Communication/Gärdenfors: its structure is subject to the same restrictions as thinking and problem solving.
Word classes/Gärdenfors: are almost exclusively syntactically determined.
GärdenforsVsTradition: I believe that syntactic markers are an effect, not the cause of the division of words into classes. There are cognitive and communicative restrictions on how words are grouped. (See also Langacker (1991b) (3) for a similar approach.)
Word classes/Conceptual Space/Areas/Gärdenfors: Thesis: Words in all content word classes, except nouns, refer to a single area.
(1) Croft, W. (2001). Radical construction grammar: Syntactic theory in typological perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
(2) Dixon, R. M. W. (2004). Adjective Classes in typological perspective. In R. M. W. Dixon & A. Y. Aikhenvald (Eds.) Adjective classes: A cross-linguistic typology (pp. 1-49) Oxford.
(3) Langacker, R. W. (1991b). Concept, image, symbol. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The Geometry of Meaning Cambridge 2014