|Metaphor: a metaphor is the transmission of a linguistic expression into a different context than that in which it was expected. The expectation results from the frequency of previous uses in certain contexts. Through the transmission an expression, which is actually expected at this place in the speech, is replaced. The condition for replacement is a certain similarity between the characteristics of the old and the new expression required for understanding. The improbability of the appearance of the new expression is a condition for the rhetorical effect of the metaphor.|
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|Gärdenfors I 39
Metaphor/cognitive linguistics/Gärdenfors: the distinction between metonymy and metaphor is a powerful tool for the exploration of word meanings. (See also Broström 1994, p.27-28).
Broström: e.g. in a dog you can see the face but what do you see in a caterpillar? Does the face of an animal body belong to a more general domain like living beings or to an intermediate domain like mammals?
Problem/Broström: For example, the definition of "metaphor" does not provide us with a criterion for distinguishing between literal and metaphorical meaning. Domain limits are also not clearer here. (See also Jackendoff & Aaron 1991).
Solution/GärdenforsVsCognitive linguistics: we should analyze "face" with meronomic (part/whole-) terms and not as a domain. Then the border between "literal" and metaphorical meaning becomes clearer.