|Theories: theories are statement systems for the explanation of observations, e.g. of behavior or physical, chemical or biological processes. When setting up theories, a subject domain, a vocabulary of the terms to be used and admissible methods of observation are defined. In addition to explanations, the goal of the theory formation is the predictability and comparability of observations. See also systems, models, experiments, observation, observation language, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, predictions, analogies, comparisons, evidence, verification, reduction, definitions, definability._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Theory/Criteria/Semantics/Gärdenfors: Criteria for a Theory of Semantics:
1. Ontological criterion: the theory should be able to explain what meanings are for entities. For example, do they belong to the external world or the inner world?
2. Semantic criterion: the relation between communicative expressions and their meanings must be explained.
3. Epistemological criterion: the theory must explain how the meanings of communicative acts are learned (> language acquisition).
4. Social criterion: the theory must explain the relations between the meaning systems of speakers and the language of their community.
5. Distinction between cognition and semantics: the theory must be able to explain the relation between the perception process and the meaning.
6. Likewise, the relations between actions and meaning_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The Geometry of Meaning Cambridge 2014