Thomas Aquinas on Justice - Dictionary of Arguments
Höffe I 149
Justice/Thomas/Höffe: Thomas Aquinas places [the concept of] justice (iustitia) (...) between prudence (prudentia) and courage (fortitudo).
Thomas Aquinas pro Aristotle: In terms of content, he follows Aristotle's differentiations made in the book of justice of Nicomachian ethics. In doing so, he introduces two distinctions that have since been canonical and effective far beyond Thomism(), the linguistic origin by Thomas Aquinas is unknown to many:
A. General justice: (iustitia generalis, not: universalis) means a comprehensive righteousness which voluntarily fulfills all that is required by law and custom.
Iustitia particularis: [here we are concerned] with questions where insatiability threatens, namely questions of honour, money or self-preservation.
Distributive justice: Within special justice, the allocation of honor and money, which allows for certain inequalities, distributive justice (iustitia distributiva), is set off against regulatory justice (iustitia commutativa).
Iustitia commutativa: (...) is responsible for two areas, voluntary exchange, business transactions and civil law, and can be called "distributive justice" here, but only here.
B. Secondly, there is the criminal law with its restorative or corrective justice (iustitia correctiva).
1.Summa IIa Ilae qu. 58 und 61_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
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