|Teleology: teleology is the doctrine that dates back to Greek antiquity that processes in nature are oriented to a cause of purpose. There are two types of teleology, a) one of which assumes internal (immanent, in things), or b) external (transcendental, determined by a world-being) purpose causes. See also purposes, goals, causes, nous, logos, determinism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Gadamer I 462
Teleology/Ancient Philosophy/Gadamer: What is, is true in its essence, that is: present in the presence of an infinite spirit, and only because of this is it possible for finite-human thinking to recognize being. Here, then, one does not think from the concept of a subject that would be for itself and that made everything else an object. On the contrary, in Plato, the being of the "soul" is determined by the fact that it participates in the true being, that is, that it belongs to the same sphere of being as the idea(1), and Aristotle says of the soul that it is, in a certain sense, all that exists(2). In this thinking, there is no talk of a worldless
Gadamer I 463
spirit that is certain of itself and that would have to seek the path to worldly existence, but both originally belong together. The relationship is the primary one.
Teleology: The older thinking took this into account by the universal ontological function that it gave to the idea of teleology. In the relationship of purpose it is so that the mediations by which something is achieved do not by chance prove to be suitable for the achievement of the purpose, but they are chosen and taken from the outset as appropriate means. The allocation of the means to the end is therefore a priori.
We call it expediency, and it is well known that not only reasonable human action is expedient in this way, but also where there is no talk of setting ends and choosing means, as in all living conditions, it is true that they can only be thought of under the idea of expediency, as the mutual interaction of all parts with each other(3). Here too the relationship of the whole is more original than the parts.
1. Plato, Phaid. 72;
2. Arist. De anima III 8, 431 b 21.
3. As is well known, Kant's criticism of teleological judgement also leaves this subjective necessity quite intact._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Wahrheit und Methode. Grundzüge einer philosophischen Hermeneutik 7. durchgesehene Auflage Tübingen 1960/2010
H. G. Gadamer
The Relevance of the Beautiful, London 1986
Die Aktualität des Schönen: Kunst als Spiel, Symbol und Fest Stuttgart 1977