Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Rationalism, philosophy: rationalism is a collective term for theories that, in addition to the original question, which statements are true, take the demand for consistency as the starting point for their creation. Rationalist theories are, of course, more linguistic and logical than empirical approaches. In conflict situations, they may be more concerned about coherence than about correspondence. See also empiricism, verifiability, verificationism, coherence, coherence theory, inferentialism.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Rationalism/Adorno: in the comparison with empiricism, it is essential that rationalism distinguishes the objectivity of reason from the inquiry into the possibility of knowledge.
XIII 148
Rationalism/Adorno: in him there is a different problem of mediation than in idealism. In rationalism as well as in empiricism, the moments of thought and experience are essentially antithetically opposed.
XIII 148
In other words, mediation, in contrast to idealism, means mediation between two opposites, between the world of the spatial and the world of the mental, simply between the body and the soul. The principles on the one hand of facts and on the other side of thought are simply thought to be independent of each other.
Therefore, rationalism assumes two substances,...
XIII 150
...the res cogitans, the thinking, and the res extensa, the extended.
Substances/rationalism/Descartes: he has attempted to explain the combination of these two substances with the assumption of an influxus physicus in the pineal gland.
Substances/rationalism/Spinoza: the latter has assumed, instead of the different substances res extensa and res cogitans, only one, which is called God or nature. It is said to have innumerable attributes, that is to say phenomena, of which only two, namely, thinking and extension, are to be known to us. Their unity in the concept of nature is supposed to guarantee their unity. Spinoza deduces this from the thesis that the order of ideas and the order of things are identical.
XIII 151
Dualism/Substance/Mind/Body/Soul/Leibniz/Adorno: Leibniz tries to dissolve the dualism between res extensa and res cogitans by the infinitesimal calculus by setting a continuum that finally the dead matter proves to be a mere limit value of the body substance. At the same time, the thinking substance is already presented as a force center and already also as something individuated, as is the case with the concept of the monad.
XIII 153
Rationalism/Adorno: because it is based on reason and not on reason contents, it is essentially a method and not a theory of knowledge. On the other hand, it is always also metaphysics. His model of truth is always mathematics, which is certainly conceived as the organon of beings.
The rationalist thinkers are all characterized by the fact that in them moments of enlightenment connect with a certain traditionalist attitude towards theology. (> Pascal).

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Th. W. Adorno
Max Horkheimer
Dialektik der Aufklärung Frankfurt 1978

Theodor W. Adorno
Negative Dialektik Frankfurt/M. 2000

Theodor W. Adorno
Ästhetische Theorie Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Minima Moralia Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophie der neuen Musik Frankfurt/M. 1995

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften, Band 5: Zur Metakritik der Erkenntnistheorie. Drei Studien zu Hegel Frankfurt/M. 1071

Theodor W. Adorno
Noten zur Literatur (I–IV) Frankfurt/M. 2002

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 2: Kierkegaard. Konstruktion des Ästhetischen Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Gesammelte Schriften in 20 Bänden: Band 8: Soziologische Schriften I Frankfurt/M. 2003

Theodor W. Adorno
Über Walter Benjamin Frankfurt/M. 1990

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 1 Frankfurt/M. 1973

Theodor W. Adorno
Philosophische Terminologie Bd. 2 Frankfurt/M. 1974

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-03-20