|Intuitionism: A) intuitionism in mathematics assumes that the objects to be inspected, e.g. numbers are only constructed in the process of the investigation and are therefore not finished objects, which are discovered. This has an effect on the double negation and the sentence of the excluded middle.|
B) Intuitionism of ethics assumes that moral principles are fixed and are immediately (or intuitively) knowable.
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|Arend Heyting Ein Streitgespräch 1956 in Kursbuch 8 Mathematik 1967
Intuitionism/Heyting: Brouwer studied the conceptual mathematical construction as such, without questioning the nature of things, for example, whether these things exist independently of our knowledge of them.
Sentence of the excluded middle: E.g. the invalidity of the sentence of the excluded middle: if we compare the definitions of two natural numbers, k and l.
(A) k is the largest prime number such that k 1 is also a prime number, if there is no such number, k = 1
(B) l is the largest prime number such that l 2 is also a prime number, if there is no such number, l = 1.
Intuitionists reject (B) as a definition of an integer. K can be really calculated (k = 3), while we have no method of determining l, since it is not known whether the sequence of the prime number twins is infinite or not. The intuitionists regard something as well-defined only when a method of determination is given.
Classical Mathematics: one can argue that the extent of our knowledge about the existence of the last twin is purely coincidental. And completely irrelevant in questions of mathematical truth.
Existence/intuitionism/Heyting: the argument of the representative of classical mathematics is of a metaphysical kind. If existing does not mean "constructible", it must have a metaphysical meaning.
Classical Mathematics/VsIntuitionism/Heyting: Assuming that on January 1st, 1970, it is proved that there are infinitely many twins, l is equal to 1. Was it not already before the date the case? (Menger, 1930)
Intuitionism/Heyting: A mathematical assertion states that a certain construction is possible. Before the construction exists, the construction is not there. Even the intuitionists are convinced that mathematics is based on eternal truths in some sense, but when one attempts to define this meaning one gets entangled in metaphysics.
Formalism/Carnap/Heyting: There always remains the doubt, which conclusions are correct, and which are not. (Carnap, 1934)
Intuitionism: we are not interested in the formal side, but precisely in the nature of inferences in meta-mathematics. There is a fundamental ambiguity in the language.
Classical Mathematics: The semanticists are even worse relativists than the formalists and intuitionists.
Intuitionism: There is an intuitionist logic. E.g. Transitivity ... p. 65 Conclusion: Logic is a part of mathematics and therefore cannot be taken as its basis.