|Semantics: Semantics is the field of linguistics, which deals with the meaning of expressions, words, parts of words, sentences or signs. Aids for ascertaining the meaning are investigations of the use and the determination of the truth value (true or false) of the statements, which can be determined from the linguistic or action-like utterances. Therefore, semantic questions are ultimately truth questions. See also truth, reference, meaning, sense, semiology, signs, symbols, syntax, pragmatics, linguistics._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Cresswell I 20 f
Katz-Fodor semantics/Cresswell: Thesis: meanings are theoretical constructions. - E.g. lexical decomposition: (object), (Physical), (not alive), (artifact), (furniture), (portable), (Something with legs), (something with a back), (something with a seating area) (seat for one). - CresswellVs: that does not explain what "object" is. - Problem: "Electron" has no intelligible theoretical construction. - What should be the "most basic" construction? -> Possible worlds (poss. w.).
Semantics/Word Meaning/CresswellVsKatz: E.g. "chair": a function w so that for every possible world w and thing a, w ε w (a) iff. a is a chair in w.
Problem: this is not entirely accurate: as there is a reference to various possible worlds, there should also be one for various moments where something is a chair in a moment, but not in another.
Katz: Thesis: the distinction between "logical" and "descriptive" words is arbitrary (Cresswell pro).
CresswellVsKatz: he, of all things, uses implicit logical constants - and therefore relies on the distinction
_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. J. Katz
The Metaphysics of Meaning
M. J. Cresswell
Semantical Essays (Possible worlds and their rivals) Dordrecht Boston 1988
M. J. Cresswell
Structured Meanings Cambridge Mass. 1984