"It"/Geach: non-referring term:
For example, the only one who ever stole a book from Snead made a lot of money selling it.
Problem: this cannot be replaced salva veritate by "Robinson", because "it" then becomes senseless - in the original also not replaceable by "a book", because then it is also senseless.
Fake Incident/Geach: the philosopher whose disciple (was) Plato was bald - fake: "Plato was bald" - Example "A philosopher smoked and drank whisky": fake: "a philosopher smoked" - "and he (or the philosopher (!)) drank...
Solution: "casus": two smoking philosophers, one of whom does not drink. The sentence does not show which one is true - but no psychologizing: ("what the speaker thought about" - ) what he said is true, even if not all thoughts were true. Wrong question: to what the subject refers: "he" or "this philosopher" is not a subject at all. "And" (conjunction) combines here two predicates, not two sentences!
Definition fake predicate: if the question is irrelevant to what it is applied.
Example "Everyone loves themselves" can be true, even if "every man loves ---" does not appeal to anyone. - > Anaphora._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Logic Matters Oxford 1972