|Causation, Philosophy: It is difficult to locate influences that can be clearly defined as causes for concrete physical processes. The difficulty is also based on the fact that most authors of philosophy share an accepted skepticism concerning the observability of causality. (cf. D. Hume, An enquiry concerning human understanding, Oxford, 2000 und D. Hume, A treatise of human nature, Oxford 2007). See also single-case causation, causality, cause, causal explanation, best explanation, explanation, conditions, sufficiency, necessity, causal dependence, counterfactual dependence._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|Lewis V 195
Individuation/Redundant causation/Peter van Inwagen: thesis: an event that happens as a product of multiple causes could not have happened without being the product of these causes. The causes could not have caused any other event.
Analogy to the individuation of objects and human beings by their causal origins.
1. This would ruin my analysis of analyzing causation in concepts of contrafactual dependency. (s) Any deviation would be a different event, not comparable, no contrafactual conditionals applicable).
2. It is prima facie implausible: I can legitimately make alternative hypotheses about how an event (or an object or a human being) has been caused.
But by that I am assuming that it was the same event! Or that one and the same event might have had different effects.
(Even Inwagen himself assumes that).
Plan/LewisVsInwagen: implies even more impossible: either my whole plans or hypotheses are hidden impossibilities, or they are not at all about a particular event.
Redundant causation/Lewis: important argument: if these are two "different deaths", then there is no redundancy!_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Peter van Inwagen
Metaphysics Fourth Edition
Die Identität von Körper und Geist Frankfurt 1989
Konventionen Berlin 1975
Philosophical Papers Bd I New York Oxford 1983
Philosophical Papers Bd II New York Oxford 1986
Cl. I. Lewis
Mind and the World Order: Outline of a Theory of Knowledge (Dover Books on Western Philosophy) 1991