Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Order, philosophy: order is the division of a subject area by distinctions or the highlighting of certain differences as opposed to other differences. The resulting order can be one-dimensional or multi-dimensional, i.e. linear or spatial. Examples are family trees, lexicons, lists, alphabets. It may be that only an order makes certain characteristics visible, e.g. contour lines. Ordering spaces may be more than three-dimensional, e.g. in the attribution of temperatures to color-determined objects. See also conceptual space, hierarchies, distinctness, indistinguishability, stratification, identification, individuation, specification.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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J.-J. Rousseau on Order - Dictionary of Arguments

Höffe I 274
Order/Rousseau/Höffe: Rousseau takes the people, he says at the beginning(1), "how they are, and how laws can be". As if it were only reasonable for a theory of legitimation, he does not presuppose a new, better person - he designs this in the Emile. For him, it is only a matter of exposing the social order, in his opinion a "sacred right" (un droit sacré), which serves as the basis for all others, in its legitimacy.
He does not give a clear answer to the obvious question of whether every social order can be considered legitimate or whether a criterion for better political conditions is needed. It is therefore not surprising that Rousseau is read in both directions, as a conservative and as a revolutionary thinker. >State/Rousseau, >Social Contract/Rousseau.
Höffe I 275
In social theory, Rousseau does not resolve the irritation of his introductory sentence ((s) that people are as they are) with a plea for anarchy, for freedom of rule. On the contrary, he recognizes the necessity of a community and, in return, the character of domination. His social theory of freedom becomes a philosophy of the state, whose power is derived from a common agreement, the >social contract.
Because this basic treaty is concluded unanimously, Rousseau, despite his first state theory thesis that every human being is born free and as master of himself, can establish the fourth thesis of the legitimacy (>Justification/Rousseau) of a community with the power of coercion. Because of the unanimity, the social contract may even be considered "the freest act in the world"(2). >Freedom/Rousseau, >State/Rousseau.

1. Rousseau, The Social Contract (Du contrat social ou Principes du droit politique), 1762
2. Ibid. IV, 2.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Rousseau I
J. J. Rousseau
Les Confessions, 1765-1770, publ. 1782-1789
German Edition:
The Confessions 1953

Höffe I
Otfried Höffe
Geschichte des politischen Denkens München 2016

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-08-05
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