Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Dennett I 550
Scientific camp: KauffmanVsSpencer: Stuart Kauffman: Order is created despite (environmental) selection.
I 46
Order/Biology/Kauffman: Order in the biosphere cannot be traced back to selection and self-organization at the same time!
Life/Kauffman: life exists at the edge of chaos, possibly near some kind of phase transition.
I 229
Fitness landscape/Kauffman:"adaptive landscape". (see also Dennett, fitness landscape.)
Thesis: Life is an adventure in the high mountains of the fitness landscape.
Order/Kauffman: Thesis: also possible without selection. Today we need a new theoretical framework model.
I 233
Selection/Kauffman: it is not proven that the selection can also successfully accumulate the minor improvements. Smaller catastrophes can also accumulate in a population. (>Error catastrophe).
I 234
Evolution/Kauffman: Example of computer programs that are to perform an operation. Serial programs are extremely sensitive and accumulate errors. It takes more time than the age of the universe to find the "optimal program" among 10300.
So the evolution of our lives must have been different.
I 238
Evolution/Optimization/Kauffman: Solution: perhaps evolution could first design a redundant program or organism and then compress it?
I 240
Kauffman: I guess this does not work. The gradual approach to the minimum length program is only useful if the program found at each level helps to find the program that is 1 shorter by the next level.
I 246
Evolution/Darwin/Selection/Kauffman: if the children of both parents are similar, the characteristics must not merge, otherwise the genetic variation would disappear after a few generations and the selection would no longer have an object.
Solution: Mendelian inheritance: both forms appear again in the grandchildren.
Question: Assuming that a gene in a population would have two alleles, can the selection increase the frequency of one allele? Yes! However, it depends on the structure of the fitness landscape.
I 248
Selection/Kauffman: our models of fitness landscapes show the limits of natural selection. (Local maximum represent end stations.)
I 253
Evolution/Kauffman: requires fitness landscapes that are not random. Probably favourable landscapes are created by self-organization.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Kau I
St. Kauffman
Der Öltropfen im Wasser München 1998

Kau II
Stuart Kauffman
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity

Den I
D. Dennett
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-04-22