Stuart Kauffman on Selection - Dictionary of Arguments
Dennett I 550
Scientific camp: KauffmanVsSpencer: Stuart Kauffman: Order is created despite (environmental) selection.
Order/Biology/Kauffman: Order in the biosphere cannot be traced back to selection and self-organization at the same time!
Life/Kauffman: life exists at the edge of chaos, possibly near some kind of phase transition.
Fitness landscape/Kauffman:"adaptive landscape". (see also Dennett: fitness landscape.)
Thesis: Life is an adventure in the high mountains of the fitness landscape.
Order/Kauffman: Thesis: also possible without selection. Today we need a new theoretical framework model.
Selection/Kauffman: it is not proven that the selection can also successfully accumulate the minor improvements. Smaller catastrophes can also accumulate in a population. (>Error catastrophe).
Evolution/Kauffman: Example of computer programs that are to perform an operation. Serial programs are extremely sensitive and accumulate errors. It takes more time than the age of the universe to find the "optimal program" among 10300.
So the evolution of our lives must have been different.
Evolution/Optimization/Kauffman: Solution: perhaps evolution could first design a redundant program or organism and then compress it?
Kauffman: I guess this does not work. The gradual approach to the minimum length program is only useful if the program found at each level helps to find the program that is 1 shorter by the next level.
Evolution/Darwin/Selection/Kauffman: if the children of both parents are similar, the characteristics must not merge, otherwise the genetic variation would disappear after a few generations and the selection would no longer have an object.
Solution: Mendelian inheritance: both forms appear again in the grandchildren.
Question: Assuming that a gene in a population would have two alleles, can the selection increase the frequency of one allele? Yes! However, it depends on the structure of the fitness landscape.
Selection/Kauffman: our models of fitness landscapes show the limits of natural selection. (Local maximum represent end stations.)
Evolution/Kauffman: requires fitness landscapes that are not random. Probably favourable landscapes are created by self-organization._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
At Home in the Universe: The Search for the Laws of Self-Organization and Complexity New York 1995
At Home in the Universe, New York 1995
Der Öltropfen im Wasser. Chaos, Komplexität, Selbstorganisation in Natur und Gesellschaft München 1998
Darwin’s Dangerous Idea, New York 1995
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997
Kinds of Minds, New York 1996
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999
"COG: Steps towards consciousness in robots"
Bewusstein, Thomas Metzinger, Paderborn/München/Wien/Zürich 1996
"Animal Consciousness. What Matters and Why?", in: D. C. Dennett, Brainchildren. Essays on Designing Minds, Cambridge/MA 1998, pp. 337-350
Der Geist der Tiere, D Perler/M. Wild, Frankfurt/M. 2005