Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments


Screenshot Tabelle Begriffe

Author Item Summary Meta data
I 52
Selection/Darwin/Gould: I am convinced that natural selection has been the main but not the only means of change.
I 94
Selection/GouldVsDawkins: If the selection directly affected a gene responsible for body strength when favouring a stronger body, then the theory of Dawkins could be justified. If bodies were unambiguous location maps of their genes, then the fighting parts of DNA could show itself outwards and the selection could have a direct effect on them. But bodies are not built that way.
There is no gene for such unambiguous parts of morphology as the left patella or a fingernail. Hundreds of genes contribute to the structure of most body parts and their action is channelled through a kaleidoscopic series of environmental influences, through embryonic, postnatal, internal and external influences. Body parts are not simply transferred genes, and the selection is not even directed directly at certain body parts! It accepts or rejects whole organisms.
II 19 ff
Selection/Gould: If natural selection drives evolution by keeping preferred variants from a spectrum that is randomly distributed around an average value, a lack of variation will drive this process out of the way. Because natural selection does not produce anything itself. Against it:
II 21
Sexual reproduction: Sex creates a huge range of variations by mixing the genetic material of two individuals.
Question: But why do the males have to be almost as big and complex as females?
Darwin has shown that the
Definition Natural selection is a battle between individuals, therefore, to pass on as many genes as possible.
Since males are indispensable because of the sexual reproduction that the variation must guarantee, they become independent tools of evolution. They are not created for the benefit of their species, as independent tools they intervene in the struggle in their very own way.
II 22
When fighting for females, heavyweights simply have a better chance. Combat avoidance strategies can be added to complex organisms.
II 51
Selection/Gould: Gould is directed against the assumption of a consistent selection, i. e. the assumption that there is an effect of selection on each level at the same time, or the theory that every detail that can be found on an organism results from the selection.
Each individual behavior may be a wonderful adaptation, but it must be shaped within a prevailing limitation.
II 173
Selection/Gould: Gould suggests recognizing the selection (not evolution) on several levels.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2020-02-25
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