Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Time: A. Time is a dimension in which events are arranged. At first, no direction (before / after) is defined with this. A time direction can be obtained in the context of the Second Principle of Thermodynamics. However, a global framework must be assumed, within which there is an increase of entropy. The assumption of increasing entropy does not apply to the comparison of local events. B. In the case of the subjective time, the question of direction is less problematic. The perceived time direction is expressed by the learned use of the terms "before" and "after". See also time arrow, time travel, time reversal, symmetry, duration, space time, relativity theory, four-dimensionalism, world lines.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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John Bigelow on Time - Dictionary of Arguments

I 192
Branched Time/Possible Worlds/Bigelow/Pargetter: we allow the time to be branched, i. e. there are several futures for each past. We should also allow something like this to be possible for development within one. That is, two parts could have the same origin. Also fusion and temporary joining of parts.
Problem: it is surprising that such parts would have to have at least one temporal part in common.
For example, suppose we meet Jane from another part of the same possible world. Let's consider the
Counterfactual conditional: if we had not met Jane, she would not have existed.
BigelowVsLewis: according to him it must be true
Bigelow/Pargetter: according to us it is obviously wrong. There must therefore be at least one possible world in which Jane exists and we do not meet her. And this possible world must then contain all Janes and us, even though there is no connection between us.
LewisVsVs: he would then have to accept any other connection and corresponding counterfactual conditional: "... an ancestor or descendant of ours could have met an ancestor or descendant of her" etc.
BigelowVsLewis: this is still wrong in the world in question and less plausible than the above mentioned counterfactual conditional. This shows the falseness of temporal theory.
BigelowVsLewis: he is in a dilemma: either he takes the world companion relation as a primitive basic concept or he allows modal basic concepts.
I 193
Counterpart relation/GR/Lewis/Bigelow/Pargetter: Lewis still counts on a more important relation, the counterpart relation: it is not a good candidate either for an unanalysed basic concept, and yet it also needs modal basic terms.
BigelowVsLewis/BigelowVsCounterpart Theory/Bigelow/Pargetter: it also leads to circularity because it requires modal concepts. This means that it cannot justify the modal logic.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Big I
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2021-06-23
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