|Language, philosophy: language is a set of phonetic or written coded forms fixed at a time for the exchange of information or distinctions within a community whose members are able to recognize and interpret these forms as signs or symbols. In a wider sense, language is also a sign system, which can be processed by machines. See also communication, language rules, meaning, meaning change, information, signs, symbols, words, sentences, syntax, semantics, grammar, pragmatics, translation, interpretation, radical interpretation, indeterminacy._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Language/Bigelow/Pargetter: the sentences of the language can be divided into two parts:
a) Theorems (logically necessary).
b) Non-theorems. (These can also be wrong).
Non-theorems: even they may be necessary true. For example, that electrons have a negative charge.
Metaphysically necessary/Bigelow/Pargetter: such sentences can be called "metaphysically necessary". Because its truth is not guaranteed by theorems. (Or does not follow from logic alone)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990