|Semantics: Semantics is the field of linguistics, which deals with the meaning of expressions, words, parts of words, sentences or signs. Aids for ascertaining the meaning are investigations of the use and the determination of the truth value (true or false) of the statements, which can be determined from the linguistic or action-like utterances. Therefore, semantic questions are ultimately truth questions. See also truth, reference, meaning, sense, semiology, signs, symbols, syntax, pragmatics, linguistics._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Truth/Bigelow/Pargetter: a sentence is true if
1. the referring terms are somehow related to each other
2. the things described are somehow related to each other
3. there is a general rule (correspondence) that determines how the terms and things should relate to each other.
Semantics/Bigelow/Pargetter: it follows that in semantics there is a fundamental distinction between:
A. Assignment of referents to language terms
B. Determination of the composition rules, which the referents of complex expressions determine from their constituents and their syntactic relations. ((s) > Compositionality).
This distinction can be localized in different places. You can accept more things as referents and thus reduce the composition rules.
Semantics: the dominant tendency is to minimize referents.
Lambda categorical language/ lambda/rules/Bigelow/Pargetter: such languages have extremely few composition rules.
For this we have more referring symbols.
Realism: would describe this as ontologically honest.
Semantics/Bigelow/Pargetter: but the realist does not have to commit to one semantics instead of another. The semantics does not determine ontology._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990