|Rules, philosophy: rules are restrictions of a domain of possibilities for subjects, communities or functionaries, or generally for acting individuals or groups. Rules may be implicit or explicit, and may be implemented by ordinance or by jointly developing equally authorized participants, e.g. in a discourse. In another sense, rules can be understood as actual regularities that can be discovered by observation. These rules can be discovered not only in action, but also in the nature of objects such as linguistic structures. See also norms, values, rule following, private language, language rules, discourse, ethics, morality, cognitivism, intuitionism, society, practice._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Rules/composition/composition rules/syntax/Bigelow/Pargetter: you can also go the other way and want to simplify the rules. That is what makes the
λ-categorical language/Lambda/Lambda Calculus/Lambda Notation/Lambda Abstraction/Bigelow/Pargetter: ((see also Cresswell I and II. and Montague).
For example: Negation: you can surprisingly assign a referent to it and keep it out of the rules:
Vs: we then have another referential layer in the theory.
Negation: we can assign a set theoretical symbol to it that represents the value "true" or "false".
((s) Truth values/s): assigns a referent to the negation, a "thing": "the
Bigelow/Pargetter: then we have a judgement function that assigns the semantic value (or referent) V (a) to a symbol a.
1: be "true".
0: be "false". +
Definition semantic value: (of the negation V (a)) is then the function ω ~, so that
ω ~ (1) = 0 ω ~ (0) = 1
correspondingly for compound expressions (internal/external negation, conjunction, etc.)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990