|Motion: spatial variation of one or more observed or not observed objects in time. Problems arising in connection with attribution or withdrawal of predicates. See also change, temporal identity, process, flux, vectors._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Movement/change/Bigelow/Pargetter: was always a problem, e.g. movement as a change of location: seems to imply a contradiction.
For example, the change of a disk from round to square: seems to imply that it is both round and square. Contradiction.
Solution/Ockham/MA/Bigelow/Pargetter: different points of time. (Doctrine of changing forms, forma fluens).
Problem: what is the difference between
a) an alternating form, and
b) the change of forms? ((s) one or more).
Change: is once the subject itself, once it is the form.
NewtonVsOckham: the counterposition was that a moving body has not only a position at a time, but also a speed.
Flux/Newton/Bigelow/Pargetter: Theory of "fluxus" was Newton's expression for the differential calculus.
Motion/Newton: attributed instantaneous velocities to moving objects: a vector.
Vector/Ockham/Bigelow/Pargetter: also the Ockhamists attributed vectors, but in a weaker sense: as a sequence of positions. But this is then an abstraction and does not correspond to any intrinsic property of movement.
Movement/Newton/Bigelow/Pargetter: is according to him a full-fledged property of an object of the 1st level, according to the Ockhamists a property of 2nd level. And this is independent according to Newton from history and "destiny", but not according to the Ockhamists.
Spheres/Aristotle/Bigelow/Pargetter: according to Aristotle, there was nothing beyond the spheres (of the stars), not even empty space, which according to Aristotle was a contradiction in itself.
Movement/Aristotle/Bigelow/Pargetter: the universe as a whole cannot have any velocity. Then God cannot have given him one.
VsAristotle: to the Church this seemed to be a limitation of God's omnipotence.
>Vectors_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
J. Bigelow, R. Pargetter
Science and Necessity Cambridge 1990