|Politics: politics is a comprehensive expression for the public negotiation and establishment of orders which should be valid for a community or society. See also power, society, history._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Equality/equal rights/equal treatment/policy/P. Singer: Affirmative action - sometimes referred to as "reverse discrimination" - was the state's attempt in the US to give disadvantaged people benefits by denying people with better conditions or better test results access in favor of disadvantaged people. A famous case was the Regents of the University of California by Bakke. Alan Bakke was an American of European descent, whose application had not been taken into account infavor of an Afro-American candidate with less good test results.
A common argument in connection with the discrimination of groups is the comparison of the number of people from certain ethnic groups in certain professions with the percentage of these groups in the total population. Let's assume a group makes up 20% of the total population. Then one should assume that in most occupations a share of 20% should also come from this group. This is usually not the case.
Singer: there is an additional assumption in the game, namely that the talent for certain activities is equally distributed in all ethnic groups.
Tests: one could argue that people with serious handicaps do not stand a chance in certain tests. Correcting test results that take into account a certain background of preparation would not be racial discrimination.
However, the UC was not able to defend itself because it had reserved 16% of the study places for minorities.
Degrees of Affirmative Action graduates are generally lower than those in the overall class.
Interests/Equalities/P. Singer: We have seen that the only sustainable basis for declaring that all people are equal is the principle that their interests must be equally taken into account. Could Bakke complain that his interests had not been adequately taken into account?
Interest: the problem is that the university must not argue with interests at all and must argue that the interests of all applicants have the same weight.
If the university changes its overall social goals, applicants who are disadvantaged under the new procedure cannot argue that their personal rights have been violated.
VsAffirmative Action/P. Singer: Opponent of the Affirmative Action did not argue for greater discrimination, but rather that it would reinforce traditional stereotypes and prejudices. If disadvantaged people received access due to their disadvantage, reservations against them would merely stabilise.
Instead, they should have access due to their own merits. A more recent argument is that disadvantaged group members would reduce the homogeneity of the groups and the disadvantaged within the group would have had bad experiences that they would have been spared in more homogeneous groups.
In the United States, administrative measures are permitted that result in greater diversity, but not ethnic quotas.
Affirmative Action/P. Singer: in any case, Affirmative Action - whether through quotas or other measures - is not fundamentally contrary to fundamental equality principles and they do not violate the rights of those who are excluded by them.
Equal opportunities: equal access for disadvantaged people does not yet ensure that they become equal members of a community._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015