Philosophy Dictionary of Arguments

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Beginning: In philosophy, "beginning" refers to the fundamental starting point or origin of existence, knowledge, or inquiry, often explored in metaphysics and epistemology.
Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Concept Summary/Quotes Sources

Stephen Jay Gould on Beginning - Dictionary of Arguments

227 ff
Beginning/life/Gould: at the end of 1977, fossil prokaryotes were discovered in South Africa, which were about 3.4 billion years old. This is a much earlier beginning of life than previously assumed.
Definition Prokaryotes: prokaryotes are e. g. bacteria and blue-green algae among others, and form the kingdom of the
Definition Monera: monera have no organelles, no nuclei and no mitochondria.
A short time later it was announced that these methane bacteria are not closely related to other monera at all. Common ancestors had to be much older!
The oldest dated rocks in West Greenland are 3.8 billion years old. So there is very little time from the creation of decent living conditions to the creation of life itself.
Perhaps the emergence of life (primitive life) is as inevitable as that of feldspar or quartz.
If methanogens are listed separately, they're a sixth kingdom.
Biologists today distinguish between eukaryotes and prokaryotes rather than between plants and animals.
Because of a common RNA sequence, the prokaryotes must have had a common precursor at some point in time.
I 234
The assumption of a steady evolutionary speed is probably impossible to maintain. The early methanogens may have developed much faster.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. Translations: Dictionary of Arguments
The note [Concept/Author], [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] resp. "problem:"/"solution:", "old:"/"new:" and "thesis:" is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Gould I
Stephen Jay Gould
The Panda’s Thumb. More Reflections in Natural History, New York 1980
German Edition:
Der Daumen des Panda Frankfurt 2009

Gould II
Stephen Jay Gould
Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes. Further Reflections in Natural History, New York 1983
German Edition:
Wie das Zebra zu seinen Streifen kommt Frankfurt 1991

Gould III
Stephen Jay Gould
Full House. The Spread of Excellence from Plato to Darwin, New York 1996
German Edition:
Illusion Fortschritt Frankfurt 2004

Gould IV
Stephen Jay Gould
The Flamingo’s Smile. Reflections in Natural History, New York 1985
German Edition:
Das Lächeln des Flamingos Basel 1989

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2024-02-27
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