|History: history is the set of past events captured and illustrated by people. The general limitation of processing and presentation resources is linked to the fact that relevance plays a central role in the representation. History also differs from the past - which encompasses the totality of past events – in that it is re-written over and over again by re-evaluating the relationships between events and their relevance. See also past, memory, future, society, progress._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Foucault thesis: What if the history of non-formal knowledge itself had a system?
Task: to reveal a positive unconsciousness of knowledge.
History/19th century/Foucault: ambiguity: unpredictable fate, - on the other hand empirical science. 19th century: distance of history to history, of events to the origin, of oblivion to return.
History/Foucault: Historians: focus their attention preferably on the long periods.
History/Historiography/Foucault: new: the place of the linear sequence has been taken by a play of in-depth detachments. Behind the shocking history of the governments, wars and famines, are almost immovable stories: stories with a slight gradient: the history of sea routes, grain, goldmines, drought and irrigation, the balance of hunger and multiplication achieved by mankind.
Old view: which connection between different events? What continuity flows through it? Can we define a totality? (Thus emphasis on the common, the large units).
New: which layers do you have to isolate? What type of series has to be introduced? What series of series can one determine? What is the relationship system? (So stress of the difference, the breaks).
Bachelard/Foucault: describes epistemological theories and thresholds: displacement and transformations of terms. (Also Canguilhem).
Returning reclassification, several pasts. They cannot be described in the same way on the one level as on the other.
Old view: cultural traditions and continuities. Units: "groups", "schools", "generations" or "movements".
New: internal conferences, compatibilities. Units: a work, a book, a text with its own structure. It is no longer about traditions and traces, but about section and boundaries. No longer a continuous basis, but transformation. This continuity!
Hence, what is a science? What is a work, what is a theory, what is a concept?
New: no longer interprets the document, but processes it from the inside, works it out. It is no longer an idle matter. The document is no longer the fortunate instrument of a history, no longer its memory, the history is, recently, a certain kind for a society from which it separates to give law and development. Documents are transformed into monuments. Immanent Description of the monument.
1.Constitution of series, boundaries, and laws that are formulated.
2. Discontinuity becomes more important.
(A) the historian's considered operation,
(B) the result of his description,
3. Possibility of a global history begins to blur.
4. Certain methodological problems exist before history.
Discontinuity: paradoxical concept: at the same time the instrument and object of the investigation. Investigation: transition from obstacle to familiarity.
Old view: network of causality. Stadia and fibers, which in themselves contain their cohesion principle.
New: not looking for a plurality of independent stories.
Definition Tableau: series of series. No fixed picture._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution. The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.
Les mots et les choses: Une archéologie des sciences humaines , Paris 1966 - The Order of Things: An Archaeology of the Human Sciences, New York 1970
Die Ordnung der Dinge. Eine Archäologie der Humanwissenschaften Frankfurt/M. 1994
l’Archéologie du savoir, Paris 1969
Archäologie des Wissens Frankfurt/M. 1981