Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Circularity: Circularity is an expression for the problem that something cannot be explained by itself. The problem arises, for example, when, in an attempted definition, no independent second expression is found for an object or for the relations of this object to other objects. See also circle, vicious circle principle, totality, wholes, type theory, self-reference.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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I 352
Circular/Circularity/Duhem: Often an analogy is quite superficial: it consists only between the words, but not between the thoughts. Nothing but word games.
E.g. the expression entropy has only a meaning in the language of the physicist.
I 355
Euler commits a circular conclusion: Definition: A power is the force that brings a body from rest to movement ...

DuhemVsEuler: Will Euler take way the very former sense of the word power, and give a simple word definition, whose arbitrariness is limited by nothing? (> Definition) word definition arbitrary) ..
Euler has force or used in the everyday sense
It is much less a definition than a theorem, to which Euler ascribes obviousness, it is an axiom.
I 357
DuhemVs: we would say instead:
A body which is not subject to any force remains immobile.
A body subjected to a constant force moves at a constant velocity.
If the force with which a body is moved is increased, one increases the speed of this body.

Thus are the characteristic properties which the ordinary mind ascribes to force or power. Thus are the hypotheses, which should become the basis of the dynamics, if one wanted to found this science upon that which seems to be self-evident to the ordinary mind.
Euler's circular conclusion cannot be avoided by those who believe that the hypotheses have to be justified by generally accepted axioms.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Duh I
P. Duhem
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-11-22