Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

Circularity: Circularity is an expression for the problem that something cannot be explained by itself. The problem arises, for example, when, in an attempted definition, no independent second expression is found for an object or for the relations of this object to other objects. See also circle, vicious circle principle, totality, wholes, type theory, self-reference.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Excerpt Meta data

Books on Amazon:
Bertrand Russell
Def circle fault principle/Russell/Gödel: no totality can contain elements that can be defined only in terms of this totality or elements which include or imply this totality -" -viscious circle principle, VCP -
Circle fault principle/GödelVsRussell: the principia themselves do not fulfil the principle in their first edition if "definable" means "definable within the system" and no definition methods outside are known, except for those that include even more extensive totalities than those that occur in the system - Gödel: I would rather see this as proof that the circle fault principle is wrong than that classical mathematics is wrong - because one can argue that the reference to a totality necessarily implies a reference to all of its individual elements or, in other words, that "all" means the same as an infinite logical conjunction -" I XIV "all"/solution/Carnap:"All" alludes to analyticity or necessity or provability -" CFP/Gödel: seems to apply only to entities constructed by ourselves -" otherwise totality is nothing absurd -
I 55f
Circle fault principle/Russell: Propositions: only form multiplicities, no entities - (s) entities are formed by terms, i.e. that you cannot set up a sentence about "all of its elements". (> "Everything he said"/(s): "say" does not form a category like "next to", "similar" "son of"; "nothing" does not either nor does it form an entity, only a multiplicity. but "father of" (unambiguous) (Ru: function, not only relation)> Chisholm)
I 57
Circle/PM/Russell: arises when one allows values as possible arguments of a propositional function ​​that require the function -
I 61
Circle fault principle/circle/entitiy/totality/PM/Russell: there must be no propositions about all propositions - E.g. All propositions are false -" therefore two kinds of truth/falsehood: 1st kind: "j a is true" (special value) - 2nd kind "Every value of jx^ has truth of the 1st kind" -

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

B. Russell/A.N. Whitehead
Principia Mathematica Frankfurt 1986

B. Russell
Das ABC der Relativitätstheorie Frankfurt 1989

B. Russell
Probleme der Philosophie Frankfurt 1967

B. Russell
Die Philosophie des logischen Atomismus
Eigennamen, U. Wolf (Hg), Frankfurt 1993

B. Russell
Wahrheit und Falschheit
Wahrheitstheorien, G. Skirbekk (Hg), Frankfurt 1996

> Counter arguments against Russell

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-09-20