|Circularity: Circularity is an expression for the problem that something cannot be explained by itself. The problem arises, for example, when, in an attempted definition, no independent second expression is found for an object or for the relations of this object to other objects. See also circle, vicious circle principle, totality, wholes, type theory, self-reference. _____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Justification/"good" circle/circular/Field: (Black, 1958, Dummett 1978, Friedman 1979 van Cleve, 1984) - E.g.: A deductive explanation of deduction gives us a kind of reasonable explanation as to why we should prefer it to alternatives. - Field: that is an explanation, but not a justification. - An explanation can only be a justification if there is a risk that there is no explanation at all.
Circular/Circularity/circular/Cognitive Theory/Induction/Field: the circle is an undeniable fundamental fact of epistemology: we need factual beliefs, which in turn can only be achieved by means of induction rules or perceptual rules.
_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Realism, Mathematics and Modality Oxford New York 1989
Truth and the Absence of Fact Oxford New York 2001
Science without numbers Princeton New Jersey 1980