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Analogy: formal parallelism. Intends show that from a similar case, similar conclusions can be drawn.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

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Friedrich Waismann Suchen und Finden in der Mathematik 1938 in Kursbuch 8 Mathematik 1967

Analogies/Science/Mathematics/Searching/Finding/Waismann: The mathematician who searches proceeds through analogies.
1. He thinks of his usual constructions of other regular figures.
2. A figure, whose sides are actually equal in length, is in his mind. Important: the connection with the empirical and the mathematical figure exists, but is an outer-mathematical!
They are, therefore, outer-mathematical aspects which are the leading stars of mathematical research. The question in mathematics does not give the investigation an objective, but only a direction.
E.g. Brouwer's question whether there is in the development of the number π a place where the digits 0123456789 follow one another. The term "development of the number π" does not help me with the question.
Suppose we gain the possibility to answer the question by finding a formula which indicates the digits of π. Thus, we lead the question whether this sequence exists, back to another question.
Then we believe that it is still the same concept. It is believed that we have sought each time in the same space, namely in the development of π.
The misconception is that a strip passes us, on the other hand, the idea of the strip has led to the direction of this whole investigation.
Suppose, for example, that a law on the distribution of the prime numbers is found with the help of the theory of function. Then one believes that one has discovered a new property in the previous concept of the prime number.
One does not see that the term has been inserted into a new context, that is, has created a new prime number concept! The two prime number terms, however, are about in the same relation as the concept of the cardinal number to that of the positive whole real number. They do not coincide, they only correspond to each other.
E.g. After the discovery of the North Pole we have not two earths, one with and one without the North Pole, but after discovering the law of the prime number distribution we have two types of prime numbers.

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
The note [Author1]Vs[Author2] or [Author]Vs[term] is an addition from the Dictionary of Arguments. If a German edition is specified, the page numbers refer to this edition.

Waismann I
F. Waismann
Einführung in das mathematische Denken Darmstadt 1996

Waismann II
F. Waismann
Logik, Sprache, Philosophie Stuttgart 1976

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2019-06-21
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