|Nature, philosophy: nature is usually defined as the part of reality that was not made or designed by humans. No properties can be attributed to nature. E.g. since contradiction is ultimately a language problem, one can say that nature cannot be contradictory. Not all forms of necessity can be attributed to nature, e.g. non-logical necessity and unnecessary existence. See also de re, de dicto, necessity de re, existence.|
Books on Amazon:
|Singer I 4
Nature/ethics/Mill/P. Singer: as J. St. Mill showed in "On Nature", "nature" means either
a) everything that exists in the universe, including the people and their creations, or...
b) nature is, as the world is, independent of humans.
In the sense of a) nothing what humans can do is unnatural, in the sense of b) one cannot conceive that human action is "unnatural" as a reproach because everything is then an interaction with nature and much of it is desirable.
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015