Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Ethics, philosophy: ethics is concerned with the evaluation and justification of actions and ultimately a justification of morality. See also good, values, norms, actions, deontology, deontic logic, consequentialism, morals, motives, reasons, action theory.

Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

Author Item Summary Meta data
Ethics/P. Singer: In the third edition of my Practical Ethics, I have made a transition towards an ethics that assumes more objective ethical truths. This is partly due to the reading of Derek Parfits book "On What Matters".
I 4
Ethics/P. Singer: Where does our ethics come from? Observations on animals such as chimpanzees show that higher animals have a sense of reciprocity.
Nature/P. Singer: it is a mistake to believe that everything natural is good and we just have to follow our natural intuitions.
P. Singer: Thesis: we have inherited the standards from our ancestors. Our task is to find out which of these must be changed.
I 9
Ethics/P. Singer: how can we distinguish between ethical and unethical behavior?
Objectively, we can distinguish whether someone acts according to our conventions, according to his conventions, or after no conventions at all.
I 10
Convention: a mere self-interest will not be considered an ethical behavior. Why?
Solution: Ethics must stand on a broader basis than the interests of the individual. (> generalizability,> universality).

Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Sing I
Peter Singer
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011

Sing II
P. Singer
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015

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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2018-06-18