|Ethics, philosophy: ethics is concerned with the evaluation and justification of actions and ultimately a justification of morality. See also good, values, norms, actions, deontology, deontic logic, consequentialism, morals, motives, reasons, action theory._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
Ethics/P. Singer: In the third edition of my Practical Ethics, I have made a transition towards an ethics that assumes more objective ethical truths. This is partly due to the reading of Derek Parfits book "On What Matters".
Ethics/P. Singer: Where does our ethics come from? Observations on animals such as chimpanzees show that higher animals have a sense of reciprocity.
Nature/P. Singer: it is a mistake to believe that everything natural is good and we just have to follow our natural intuitions.
P. Singer: Thesis: we have inherited the standards from our ancestors. Our task is to find out which of these must be changed.
Ethics/P. Singer: how can we distinguish between ethical and unethical behavior?
Objectively, we can distinguish whether someone acts according to our conventions, according to his conventions, or after no conventions at all.
Convention: a mere self-interest will not be considered an ethical behavior. Why?
Solution: Ethics must stand on a broader basis than the interests of the individual. (> generalizability,> universality)._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Practical Ethics (Third Edition) Cambridge 2011
The Most Good You Can Do: How Effective Altruism is Changing Ideas About Living Ethically. New Haven 2015