|Paradoxes: are contradictions within formally correct statements or sets of statements that lead to an existence assumption, which initially seemed plausible, to be withdrawn. Paradoxes are not errors, but challenges that may lead to a re-formulation of the prerequisites and assumptions, or to a change in the language, the subject domain, and the logical system. See also Russellian paradox, contradictions, range, consistency.|
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|Beck-Bornholdt/Dubben Der Hund, der Eier legt,Reinbek 2002
Simpson s Paradox / Beck-Bornholt/Dubben: a result can be transformed into its opposite - e.g. Grouping: for reasons of prudence a new drug is given just a quarter of the patients in Old Town, while in New Town three-quarters of them get it. And that is correctly documented. - Lets suppose that the old medicine is clearly better - in the publication, both cities are thrown together - so the result is reversed. - That is often done to not expose hospitals with bad healing statistics. - Solution: division into groups. - II 200 error: e.g. old non-smokers together with young smokers.
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