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|Duhem I 196
Definition Raw Fact/Poincaré: "The scientific fact is only the raw fact, translated into a comfortable language.
Everything that the scholar creates of a fact is the language in which he expresses it."
Z LL 2a
E.g. I observe a galvanometer and ask a layman: does the current flow? He'll try to determine something on the wire. The assistant will understand the question like this: does the light strip move?
The difference between a raw and a scientific fact is the same as that between two expressions in two different languages.
It is not correct that the words "the current flows" are based on a convention, to translate the fact that the magnet strip is distracted! E.g. it may well be that the assistant says: the current is flowing, but the magnet does not move, the galvanometer seems to have a defect.
He can observe the occurrence of gas bubbles or something else on a voltmeter that is also connected to the circuit. "The current flows" does not mean a certain concrete fact in a technical or conventional language, but a symbolic formula. For the theorist, an infinite number of different kinds can be translated into concrete facts, since all these incoherent facts permit the same theoretical interpretation.
Ziel und Struktur der physikalischen Theorien Hamburg 1998