|Symbols: The concept of a symbol has, in a broader sense, the same meaning as the concept of a sign. The special use of the concept in different authors differs in some respects fundamentally, for example, with regard to which role conventions play in the formation of symbols and whether symbols form a system. See also signs, icons, conventions, meaning, reference, picture theory, representation, substitution, code._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|Allen Newell/Herbert A. Simon Computerwissenschaft als empirische Forschung (1976) in Dieter Münch (Hrsg.) Kognitionswissenschaft Frankfurt 1992
Münch I 57
Symbol/Newell/Simon: a symbol is based on intelligent action. Symbols and only symbols are arbitrary.
Symbol/McCulloch: what is a symbol that intelligence can use and what is intelligence so that it can use a symbol?
Münch I 61
Symbol/Newell/Simon: The thesis that a physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent actions. (Sufficient: means any system of sufficient size).
This makes a statement about the architecture and the nature of intelligent systems.
Münch I 72
Newell/Simon: Thesis: Symbol systems solve problems by using the methods of heuristic search. The solutions are represented in symbol systems.
Search process: is a step by step change of symbol structures._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
D. Münch (Hrsg.)
Kognitionswissenschaft Frankfurt 1992