|Science: A. Science is a) an inventory of statements on defined subject domains obtained with certain methods, rules and instruments as well as b) a set of methods, instruments and rules for obtaining new statements on the same subject domain. B. Groups of people who are counted to a subject area, whereby these groups are being formed by the common acceptance of methods, rules, instruments and the limitation of the subject areas. See also observation, observability, methods, systems, theories, theoretical terms, theoretical entities, verification._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
|Black III 83
Neutrality/Science/Black: the neutrality thesis is harmful when combined with the view that norms and values are merely subjective. E.g.
Neutrality/Jacques Monod: thesis: science is based on a strictly objective analysis and interpretation of the universe, including the human himself.
Decision/Monod: a decision is always a step out of the realm of objectivity into the realm of values that is not objective, and therefore cannot be derived from objective knowledge. One simply cannot prove objectively that it is bad to wage war.
Objectivity/Monod: objective knowledge defines the alternatives, but it does not help to select them.
Values/Monod: Science cannot create, derive or suggest values. Even the decision to become a scientist results from a free axiomatic choice of a value standard. (It is not itself scientific). (London, 1971, pp 12ff)_____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
Zufall und Notwendigkeit Hamburg 1982
Bedeutung und Intention
Handlung, Kommunikation, Bedeutung, G. Meggle (Hg), Frankfurt/M 1979
Sprache München 1973
The Prevalence of Humbug Ithaca/London 1983