Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Information, information theory: A character or a character combination contains information when it is clear to the recipient that this character or the character combination appears instead of another possible character or a possible character combination. The supply of possible characters determines to a part the probability of the occurrence of a character from this supply. In addition, the expected probability of the appearance of a character can be increased by already experienced experiences of regularities. The amount of information transmitted by a character depends on the improbability of the occurrence of the character.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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Dennett I 268
The information is present in the specific environmental conditions. Initial conditions ensure that one certain structure is selected from many possible ones. Through elimination ambiguity becomes clarity. ("Interpretation").
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Monod I 29
Information/Monod: information requires a sender. (Also within a living being).
For example, crystal/life: the amount of information encoded in the crystal structure is several orders of size smaller than that which is transmitted from one generation to another in the most primitive creature.
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I 92
Information/Biology/Monod: the amount of information required to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein is much greater than that required to establish the sequence.
ElsässerVsMonod: Contradiction: On the one hand, the genome completely determines the function of a protein while the function is bound on the other hand to a three-dimensional structure whose information content is much greater than the direct genetic determination of the structure.
Elsässer: sees instead in the macroscopic development of the living beings a phenomenon, which is physically not explainable, because it seems to testify an "enrichment without cause" (> emergence).
MonodVsElsässer: the objection is dispensed with when investigating the molecular level of epigenesis: information enrichment results from the fact that the genetic information (represented by the sequence) is actually expressed only under precisely defined initial conditions (in aqueous phase within certain narrow limits of temperature, the ion composition, etc.) so that only a single one of all possible structures can be realized.
Thus, the initial conditions contribute to the information that is finally contained in the globular structure, without specifying it!
Thus, in the structuring process of a globular protein, the microscopic image and the cause of the self-active epigenetic development of the organism can be seen simultaneously.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Mon I
J. Monod
Zufall und Notwendigkeit Hamburg 1982

Den I
D. Dennett
Darwins gefährliches Erbe Hamburg 1997

Den II
D. Dennett
Spielarten des Geistes Gütersloh 1999

Mon I
J. Monod
Zufall und Notwendigkeit Hamburg 1982


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-10-23