|Goals, philosophy: a goal is an unrealized state, which is striven for by a positive idea. Some authors assume that even higher animals can have goals. In idealistic philosophy there is the thesis that history as a whole has a goal. See also psychology, pragmatism, history, teleology, fatalism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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|Ruth G. Millikan Verschiedene Arten von zweckgerichtetem Verhalten in Dominik Perler, Markus Wild (Hg) Der Geist der Tiere Frankfurt 2005
Perler I 201
Animal/Purpose/Millikan: the anthropomorphism equips animals with plans or human-like purposes, i.e. with cognitions.
To do this, one needs a theory, about what is purpose, cognition and human cognition.
I distinguish between
2. "intentional" purpose direction: this has to do with recognizing purposes and having plans.
Thesis: there can be no investigation of the behavior that is not implicitly based on a speculation about what the biological purpose direction is.
The intentional purpose direcetion is more problematic. It is a form of biological purpose.
Purpose/biological/Millikan: E.g. Heartbeat, e.g. a frog ejecting its tongue. Biological function is the historical survival value.
Behavior/Millikan: why can behavior not be investigated without referring to biological purpose?
There can be an infinite number of possible descriptions (> language, infinite) that can be given for a behavior. The mouse runs towards its hole, but also to the north, towards London, or towards the broom. Here, it is clear that only the former description is relevant.
That mice run away from cats is the key. Because it is a recurring phenomenon. That they are running towards a broom is not a recurring phenomenon.
Not any output of an animal is relevant behavior. E.g. "knee twitching" has no survival value. E.g but sneezing probably has one.
For example, if my blinking makes you smile, namely as a biological purpose, I will not recognize this purpose; I will not blink because I think of that purpose._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987
Der Geist der Tiere Frankfurt 2005