Philosophy Lexicon of Arguments

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Goals, philosophy: a goal is an unrealized state, which is striven for by a positive idea. Some authors assume that even higher animals can have goals. In idealistic philosophy there is the thesis that history as a whole has a goal. See also psychology, pragmatism, history, teleology, fatalism.

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Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments.

 
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Ruth G. Millikan Verschiedene Arten von zweckgerichtetem Verhalten in Dominik Perler, Markus Wild (Hg) Der Geist der Tiere Frankfurt 2005

Perler I 201
Animal/Purpose/Millikan: the anthropomorphism equips animals with plans or human-like purposes, i.e. with cognitions.
To do this, one needs a theory, about what is purpose, cognition and human cognition.
I distinguish between
1. Biological,
2. "intentional" purpose direction: this has to do with recognizing purposes and having plans.
Thesis: there can be no investigation of the behavior that is not implicitly based on a speculation about what the biological purpose direction is.
The intentional purpose direcetion is more problematic. It is a form of biological purpose.
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I 202
Purpose/biological/Millikan: E.g. Heartbeat, e.g. a frog ejecting its tongue. Biological function is the historical survival value.
Behavior/Millikan: why can behavior not be investigated without referring to biological purpose?
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I 203
There can be an infinite number of possible descriptions (> language, infinite) that can be given for a behavior. The mouse runs towards its hole, but also to the north, towards London, or towards the broom. Here, it is clear that only the former description is relevant.
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I 204
That mice run away from cats is the key. Because it is a recurring phenomenon. That they are running towards a broom is not a recurring phenomenon.
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I 205
Not any output of an animal is relevant behavior. E.g. "knee twitching" has no survival value. E.g but sneezing probably has one.
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I 207
For example, if my blinking makes you smile, namely as a biological purpose, I will not recognize this purpose; I will not blink because I think of that purpose.


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Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.

Millk I
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987

Tie I
D. Perler/M. Wild (Hg)
Der Geist der Tiere Frankfurt 2005


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Ed. Martin Schulz, access date 2017-11-20