|Type/Token, philosophy: tokens are single occurrences of something classified by a type. The distinction goes back to Ch. S. Peirce (Peirce, Charles S. (1931-58), “Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce”, Hartshorne and Weiss (eds.), Cambridge, MA Harvard University Press, Section 4.537). See also tokening, classification, categories, identity, order, partial identity, universalism, nominalism, conceptualism._____________Annotation: The above characterizations of concepts are neither definitions nor exhausting presentations of problems related to them. Instead, they are intended to give a short introduction to the contributions below. – Lexicon of Arguments. |
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Names/Type/Word type/Millikan: with this I mean from now on always "lowest type" (words with the "same meaning"(s)) Thus Millikan avoids the affected concept of the synonymy.
Type: Elements of independent branches of the same family are not tokens of the same type!
E.g. There are 17 people at the school called John.
Solution: Then there are 17 different name types, in daily use at school, they are different lowest types because individual tokens are not reproductions according to the model of other tokens. The individual tokens (assigned to the individual humans) deliver independently.
Meaning/Millikan: in the sense of stabilization functions that are historically close, meaning belongs to:
1. the lowest type.
2. At second thought, the meaning belongs to all tokens of the same type.
Name/Millikan: (see below) because reference and denotation depend on the stabilization function, it can be that someone uses a name without being able to identify the referent ((s)> attributive). Millikan: as well as e.g. Elm/Beech trees.
Identification/Millikan: here something is identified as the element of the lowest type. So I need only to know the branch of the family, as the one the stabilizing function stabilizes.
Word Equality/Millikan: what makes two tokens tokens into the same word. That is, the same genetic type or lowest type - is the history of use.
Mentioning quotation marks/Millikan: the stabilization function of the quotation marks is adapted to the "filling".
Type: Tokens are of the same type when they are tokens of the same lowest type. Expressions and sentences are of the same type when each of their aspects coincides in the lowest type.
Alternatively, expressions are grouped into types,...
...by reference to genetic families. Or if they are composed of the same signs and spaces, or of phonemes of the same families, in the same order.
This can happen in different ways: e.g. the German word "red" or the (English) syllable "red". Therefore, it is possible that mentioning quotes themselves belong to different lowest types.
Mentioning quotation marks: have then the relational eigenfunction to produce an act of identification of the type from which its filling is a token.
Adapter: Quotation marks must be supplied with an adapter that appears as their filling so that they have an adapted function. But this fact does not make them into indexical propositional sentence elements.
Indexical: is the expression between the quotation marks because it a has a shifting function which is relational. It is to be mapped to something that is to be identified by the listener. This something is the reproductively determined family or type of token.
For example, the shifting referent of "Abe Lincoln" in the context of ""Abe Lincoln" is a name" is an indexed referent of the type "Abe Lincoln".
Relation: this must be a relation rather than a mere neighborhood. For this, the token-to-type relation is perfect._____________Explanation of symbols: Roman numerals indicate the source, arabic numerals indicate the page number. The corresponding books are indicated on the right hand side. ((s)…): Comment by the sender of the contribution.
R. G. Millikan
Language, Thought, and Other Biological Categories: New Foundations for Realism Cambridge 1987